Tag Archive europe

Experts warn of stem cell underuse as transplants reach one million worldwide

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HSCT (also known as blood and marrow transplant) is most often used to treat diseases of the blood and several types of cancer such as multiple myeloma or leukemia. For many people with these diseases the only possibility of a cure is to have a HSCT. The procedure provides healthy cells from either the patient (autologous transplantation) or from a healthy donor (allogeneic transplantation) to replace those lost to disease or chemotherapy…

Fluorescent dyes ‘light up’ brain cancer cells

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Dr. John S. Kuo and colleagues of University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, evaluated two “tumor-selective” fluorescent agents — called CLR1501 and CLR1502 — for their ability to differentiate brain tumors from normal brain tissue in mice…

Natural selection is furthering mutations that are making skin paler

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The first hominids that appeared in Africa probably had pale skin covered with hair, like other primates. They are thought to have lost their hair when they became bipedal, and that natural selection subsequently furthered darker skins in Africa as they protect against ultraviolet (UV)light. However, when humans left Africa (about 100,000 years ago) and headed for Asia or Europe, where UV intensity was lower, they once again acquired a less pigmented skin colour. What caused the depigmentation of these populations is not clear, and two hypotheses have in fact been put forward: firstly, it could be due to a relaxing in natural selection that keeps the skin dark in Africa, since when leaving Africa, UV levels are lower; secondly, it could be due to the fact that natural selection furthers certain mutations so that individuals can have paler skin, since at these latitudes having a skin with a dark pigmentation prevents the synthesis of adequate levels of vitamin D, essential for our survival. …

No link found between bladder cancer, use of pioglitazone or rosiglitazone, Avandia

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Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world, with 430,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012. Europe and North America have the highest incidence of bladder cancer, with an even higher incidence in people with diabetes…

Gene discovered that reduces risk of stroke

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Researchers from Royal Holloway, University of London, together with an international team from across the United States and Europe, have found that people with a specific variant of a gene, known as PHACTR1, are at reduced risk of suffering cervical artery dissection, which is caused by a tear in an artery that leads to the brain. The new discovery, published in the journal Nature Genetics, could lead to new treatments and prevention strategies for the disease, which is a major cause of stroke in young adults. The same gene variant has also been identified as a protector against migraines and affects the risk of heart attack. Professor Pankaj Sharma, from the School of Biological Sciences at Royal Holloway, said: “This is an important breakthrough…

Lactose intolerants at lower risk of certain cancers: Study

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“We found that people with lactose intolerance, who typically consume low amounts of milk and other dairy products, have a reduced risk of lung, breast and ovarian cancers,” says Jianguang Ji, Associate Professor at Lund University and researcher at the Center for Primary Care Research in Malm�. “The risk of cancer was not reduced in relatives of people with lactose intolerance, which indicates that protection against these cancers is related to diet. However, it would be wrong to conclude that milk is a risk factor for these cancers,” emphasises Jianguang Ji. There are large differences in the incidence of breast and ovarian cancers between different countries…

European consensus on methodological recommendations for clinical studies in rare cancers

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New drug could help in battle against cervical cancer

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A Cancer Research UK-funded UK study led by researchers at the University of Leicester, with key collaborators from the Universities of Glasgow, Manchester and Edinburgh, has discovered that adding the investigational agent cediranib, which has been developed by the multinational pharmaceutical and biologics company AstraZeneca, to standard chemotherapy may be beneficial for patients with metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer and could pave the way for future treatment of the disease. Professor Paul Symonds from the Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine at the University of Leicester and a consultant at Leicester’s Hospitals, explained: “Cancers develop their own blood supply and cancers of the cervix with a well-developed blood supply can have a particularly bad outcome for the patient. “One of the substances which increase new blood vessels in cervical cancer is Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The experimental drug cediranib blocks the receptor for VEGF in the cancer, potentially limiting its growth in the body. …

Immune cells in liver drive fatty liver disease, liver cancer

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These liver diseases (NAFLD and NASH), along with chronic viral infections, are the most common causes of liver cancer, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the United States, about 90 million people suffer from NAFLD. In Europe, the figure is more than 40 million, and even in threshold countries like India and China, the number of people affected is rising due to increasingly unhealthy lifestyles. More worrying, in all of the above mentioned states the numbers of NAFLD and NASH patients is constantly increasing. …

Bowel cancer risk reduced by adopting multiple healthy behaviors

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Lead author, Krasimira Aleksandrova, says: “These data provide additional incentive to individuals, medical professionals and public health authorities to invest in healthy lifestyle initiatives. …