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Axillary lymph node evaluation performed frequently in ductal carcinoma in situ

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While axillary lymph node evaluation is the standard of care in the surgical management of invasive breast cancer, a benefit has not been demonstrated in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). For women with invasive breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) replaced full axillary lymph node dissection (ALND)…

Multiple allergic reactions traced to single protein

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Previous studies traced reactions such as pain, itching and rashes at the injection sites of many drugs to part of the immune system known as mast cells. When specialized receptors on the outside of mast cells detect warning signals known as antibodies, they spring into action, releasing histamine and other substances that spark inflammation and draw other immune cells into the area. Those antibodies are produced by other immune cells in response to bacteria, viruses or other perceived threats…

Imaging techniques reliably predict treatment outcomes for TB patients

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Traditionally used to detect cancer, PET imaging shows how organs and tissues are functioning. When used with X-rays generated from CT scans, PET scans provide a more complete picture of the area of the body being examined…

Do spinal cord injuries cause subsequent brain damage?

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The research, published recently in two articles, one in of the Journal of Neuroscience, the other in Cell Cycle, highlights the close links between spinal cord injury and loss of brain function, and suggests potential treatment to prevent such changes. “Animal studies have shown that traumatic brain injury, even mild repeated injuries, can result in progressive brain tissue damage and cognitive decline, as well as widespread brain inflammation. But little research has examined whether these problems occur after spinal cord injuries,” said UM SOM anesthesiology professor and noted neurobiologist Alan Faden, MD, who led the study. “Our studies the first to show that isolated SCI can cause progressive loss of brain cells in key brain regions,” said Faden. …

Common chemotherapeutic agent reduces resistance to virus therapy in brain tumor patients

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Preclinical studies of oncolytic virus therapy in malignant glioma are promising; however, a potential problem with this approach is that the body’s own immune system can recognize the virus and clear the infection, resulting in reduced therapeutic effects. For this study, researchers used a mouse model with an intact immune system to mimic what would occur in humans to determine how the immune system clears the oncolytic virus. They found that the area surrounding malignant gliomas has a high number of immune cells called microglial cells and macrophages…

Cancer patients should not hesitate to speak with their doctors about dietary supplements

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This gap in communication can happen when patients believe that their doctors are indifferent or negative toward their use of these supplements. As a result, patients may find information about dietary supplements from unreliable sources, exposing themselves to unneeded risks. Since information on these dietary supplements is limited, researchers from the University of Texas Medical Branch describe a practical patient-centered approach to managing dietary supplement use in cancer care in a review article. Improving the communication between patient and doctor in this area is critical. …

How radiotherapy kills cancer cells

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Dr Jason Greenwood from Queen’s Centre for Plasma Physics collaborated with academics from Italy and Spain on the work on electrons, which has been published in the international journal Science. Using some of the shortest laser pulses in the world, the researchers used strobe lighting to track the ultra-fast movement of the electrons within a nanometer-sized molecule of amino acid. The resulting oscillations — lasting for 4,300 attoseconds (billion-billionths of a second) — amount to the fastest process ever observed in a biological structure. …

Wireless sensor transmits tumor pressure

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Contents under Pressure Tumors, like healthy tissues, need oxygen and nutrients to survive. In order to accommodate the demands of a growing tumor, blood vessels from surrounding tissue begin to grow into the tumor. Yet, unlike normal tissue, these newly formed blood vessels are disorganized, twisty, and leaky. It’s thought that the high pressure observed in tumors is a result of these abnormal blood vessels, which leak fluid and proteins into the area between tumor cells, known as the interstitial space…

Study identifies when and how much various prostate cancer treatments will impact urinary and sexual functioning — ScienceDaily

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Looking over data gathered from more than 17,000 surveys completed by men diagnosed with prostate cancer, Fox Chase researchers tracked when patients’ urinary and sexual symptoms changed following each type of treatment, and by how much. “The ultimate goal,” says study author Matthew Johnson, MD, Resident Physician in the Department of Radiation Oncology at Fox Chase, “is to develop a predictive tool that lets patients decide which treatment is right for them based on the symptoms they have beforehand, and their tolerance for any change — even temporary — in those symptoms.” After a diagnosis of prostate cancer, men have multiple treatment options, including surgery to remove the prostate and several types of radiation therapy…

Prostate cancer diagnosis improves with MRI technology

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An ultrasound machine provides an imperfect view of the prostate, resulting in an under-diagnosis of cancer, said J. …