What are tumor markers

By | April 2, 2012

What are tumor markers, mainly check the blood of patients with tumor-associated or specific antigen, tumor secretion of hormones, metabolism and tumor-specific viral antigens for cancer diagnosis, determine the efficacy, to provide indicators for monitoring recurrence. Currently, there are a variety of tumor markers used in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer has become an important part of the work.
1. What are tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen CCEA: fetal cells and various cancer organizations, an antigen common to many benign diseases such as collagen diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and non-specific colitis may also have l high, not tumor specific markers, only monitoring of tumor recurrence and metastasis as prognostic indicators.
2. Fetoprotein CAFP: is a strong human hepatocellular carcinoma-specific tumor marker in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer has important significance, but must be clearly than many other primary liver cancer benign and malignant disorders may also have elevated AFP, including: cholangiocarcinoma, hepatoblastoma, teratoma reproductive, gastrointestinal cancer, film adenocarcinoma, lung cancer, kidney cancer and leukemia and other tumors, and benign diseases such as acute or chronic hepatitis, severe hepatitis recovery, cirrhosis of the liver and so on.
3. CA125: a molecular weight of 220 000–1000000 cell surface glycoprotein, 80% – 90% of epithelial ovarian cancer patients have abnormal elevation of CA125, while patients with mucinous ovarian cancer, the positive rate relatively low; other tumors such as membrane cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, uterine cancer, breast cancer may also have elevated CA125; benign diseases such as endometriosis, endometrial hyperplasia, also there may be increased, specificity is not very high.
4. CA15-3: 400 000 molecular weight glycoprotein associated with breast cancer, specificity is not high, mainly for breast cancer prognosis, and efficacy of postoperative follow-up monitoring.
5. Prostatic specific antigen CPSA: Serum PSA has become a diagnosis of prostate cancer tumor markers, with a high degree of specificity, the positive rate of up to 82% – 97%, but it should be noted that patients with BPH and prostatitis can also be increased.
6. What are tumor markers, human chorionic gonadotropin CHCG: HCG under normal conditions or in full-term, within 1 month after the abortion, or molar 2 months after discharge should be negative. If abnormal elevation of HCG to exclude subsequent pregnancy, and the first for the full-term pregnancy or abortion, clinical performance, you should consider choriocarcinoma cell carcinoma; In addition, HCG abnormal germ cell origin of malignant tumors can also help.
7. Neuron specific enolase CNSE: are neurons and neuroendocrine cell-specific enzyme, in small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma in abnormal expression of these two tumor diagnosis and treatment follow-up of some significance.
8. What are tumor markers, lactate dehydrogenase CLDH: can reflect the load and prognosis in some malignancies, such as in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, LDH is an important prognostic indicator, its value is abnormally high that the patient poor prognosis ; in testicular cancer, LDH as tumor staging before treatment and after treatment follow-up and an important indicator of prognosis.

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