Etiology of esophageal cancer – smoking and drinking, smoking and drinking and long-term occurrence of esophageal cancer. It was found that a large number of basic non-drinkers than drinkers to increase the incidence of esophageal cancer 50 times more than those smoking more than the basic rate of esophageal cancer 7 times higher non-smokers, who smoked intoxicated incidence of alcohol is neither smoke nor drink 156 times. Drinking can lead to esophageal cancer risk of smoking was multiplied several times growth. Generally believed that those who drink alcohol greater risk of suffering from esophageal cancer, esophageal cancer patients in the United States who drink whiskey, 25 times higher than the control group, drink beer than the control group were 10 times higher. But the high incidence of esophageal cancer in Henan Province for the forest state, however, more people in the region without drinking habits, census found 276 esophageal cancer patients not even a person to be habitual drinkers. Carcinogens in tobacco can lead to esophageal epithelial hyperplasia, and with the increase in smoking and increase the extension of time. Quit smoking 10 – 15 years of troubles the risk of esophageal cancer nearly non-smokers. However, residents are also some high incidence of esophageal cancer smoking is not widespread, there is no smoking history in patients with esophageal cancer, at home and abroad have reported that smoking is not supported by risk factors of esophageal cancer.
Esophageal cancer cause – smoking and alcohol consumption, epidemiological studies noted that with the increase in smoking and smoking time, tobacco, rubber, and other carcinogenic substances in Central Asia nitrate accumulation in the body will be increased, the risk of disease increases. Domestic and international data indicate that the incidence of drinking and esophageal cancer have a certain relationship, both smoking and drinking habits than a single chance of esophageal cancer occurred more than drinking and smoking have synergistic carcinogenic effects.
Etiology of esophageal cancer – smoking and drinking, a number of epidemiological studies show that the case-control study in Japan, Italy and Switzerland, smoking, alcohol consumption, male and female risk factors for esophageal cancer occurred. Occurrence of heavy drinkers head and neck (direct contact with alcohol at the) most at risk of cancer. Zambon and other research reports on smoking and cancer risk are closely related. Smoking more than 25 days, the relative ratio of 7.0, long-term (more than 35 years) smokers, or 6.4, those who quit smoking more than 10 years, reducing the risk of cancer, or 1.5. As for drinking, the cancer risk increases with the sharp increase in alcohol consumption. 35_55g drinks per week were, or 6.2 per week, those who drank more than 84g, or 24.5. Heavy drinking at the same time a large number of smokers, the highest increase cancer risk 130 times (consistent with the multiplier model.) Gallus and other esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in 114 cases of female study found that smoking more than 25 days who increase the risk of cancer, or 4.5, heavy alcohol consumption (daily alcohol consumption more than 3 times) by, or 5.4, and heavy smoking Heavy drinkers also smoke, cancer risk is doubled, or 12.8. A French study showed that cancer risk and smoking strong cigarettes and non-filter-tipped cigarette smoke, but not with filter-tipped cigarette smoking light cigarettes and soft independent. Hand cigarette smoke cancer risk than smoking more cigarettes mechanism. The northern Indian state of Assam is a high incidence of esophageal cancer, the locals are throwing chewing betel and / or tobacco and smoking, drinking habits, in the long-term, high intake of Penang throwing and smoke, drink, and its cancer risk significantly increased, and showed a dose-response relationship. Those who smoked more than 20 days, risk of cancer for males and females or 3.7 and 2.5, respectively. More than 10 drinks per week 5_10 times men and women, cancer risk of men and women, or 4.8 and 3.6, respectively. At the same time throwing chewing betel and / or chewing tobacco or betel both throwing and smokers, the risk of cancer than those who simply chewing betel palm. Raw or cooked throw chewing betel and tobacco were, or 6.6; coconut and betel chewing tobacco fermentation, men, women or 7.1 and 3.6, respectively. Betel chewing and throwing both smoking and drinking are most at risk of cancer, male, female or 13.6 and 11.8, respectively. High incidence of esophageal cancer from two national case-control study also showed that smoking increases the risk of esophageal cancer, male, female or 2.04 and 5.27, respectively, and with years of smoking and smoking increased. Both smokers and drinkers, cancer risk will further increase. Alcohol may also increase the risk of esophageal cancer, male and female or 1.79 and 2.46, respectively, and with the drinking age and alcohol consumption increases, that smoking and drinking are major risk factors for esophageal cancer local.
Has been confirmed that smoking can cause DNA single strand breaks and base damage, if not repaired timely and effective manner, will result in genetic mutations and carcinogenesis. About smoking and p53 mutations have also studied the relationship between. About 50% of the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients had 17p deletion and p53 gene mutations, leading to abnormal accumulation of p53 protein is a pre-cancerous evidence. According to Japanese reports, in 126 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, p53 protein accumulation-positive 55.6%; heavy smoking or drinking in the accumulation of p53 protein positive group was significantly higher than negative group. Both smokers and drinkers, p53 protein accumulation-positive more common. In 18 cases of severe smoking, drinkers, 17 cases had p53 protein accumulation, or to 29.8, indicating that p53 protein accumulation is closely related with heavy smoking and drinking. FHIT gene is a tumor suppressor gene at 3p14.2, the FRA3B locus susceptible to environmental carcinogens (including smoking, drinking) injury.
Is now clear about smoking and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which indicated that smoking may also be related to esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, current smoking and Barrett esophagus-related adenocarcinoma of the relationship are poorly understood. Song so that the tobacco metabolite diol epoxide benzo in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma may play an important role. It can reduce the dimension of DNA transcription acid A receptor; BPDE can induce the expression of COX-2; and that the expression of COX-2 inhibition with the purpose of RAR, suggesting that smoking in the incidence of esophageal cancer in may play a role.
Etiology of esophageal cancer – smoking and drinking, even though smoking can cause a reflux of gastric disease, but in the transformation of esophageal adenocarcinoma, whether to play the same role also is not clear. Levi's study suggests that smoking is not an independent risk factor; Brown and other studies suggest that smoking and esophageal adenocarcinoma, an esophageal gastric junction adenocarcinoma was significantly related to smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day were adenocarcinoma rates doubled, and the risk of occurrence of cancer and smoking are not clearly related filter-tipped cigarettes; and believes that, with or without filter tips and carcinogenic risk of the same, found that existing smokers esophageal adenocarcinoma , the risk of cardia adenocarcinoma was 2 times the non-smokers, but also be sustained after quitting the risk of 30 years, so that the risk of cancer and years of smoking duration and daily cigarette consumption related.
- can heavy smoking & drinking lead to esophogeal cancer
- does smoking and drinking greatly increase changes of esophogeal cancers?