Chemotherapy is a common gastrointestinal adverse reactions, the patient developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, etc., can also have the oral mucosa or the gastrointestinal mucosa ulcer caused by blood in the stool and so on. Myelosuppression is also common adverse reactions, in which neutropenia is most common. Followed by thrombocytopenia, without significant gastrointestinal bleeding, anemia generally does not appear immediately. Standard doses of chemotherapy can occur liver function and kidney function damage. Generally chemotherapy of ovarian and testicular can feature a certain extent. Patients with hair loss can also occur and so on. Many types of chemotherapy drugs, different chemotherapy drugs on the toxicity of the body organs there is a difference.
Common side effects of chemotherapy (1) chemotherapy of local adverse reactions: phlebitis and drugs are mainly caused by the leakage of local tissue necrosis. Caused by chemotherapy drugs after phlebitis is a vein thrombophlebitis, and other parts of phlebitis or deep vein thrombosis is very rare. This is in fact through which chemotherapy drugs to stimulate blood vessel function, expressed as vascular redness, swelling, pain, you can use the method of local heat treatment, the patient usually does not cause much pain; local tissue necrosis due to chemotherapy caused by leakage to the outside vein, showing intense local pain, tissue necrosis and ulcer formation. Leakage after the cold should be immediately localized and can be closed with a local anesthetic, smug golden powder for external application. Has emerged for the local area of tissue necrosis should be a large skin graft, of course, this situation is extremely rare.
Common side effects of chemotherapy (2) nausea and vomiting: These are the most common chemotherapy drugs in the early toxicity. Patients with severe vomiting can cause dehydration, can not eat, severe nausea, vomiting, very painful, some patients can not tolerate the pain because even refuse chemotherapy. Nausea, vomiting, in addition to chemotherapy drugs to the principle of the direct stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract effects, a very important factor is the role of drugs through the indirect or direct stimulation of the brain's vomiting center. Vomiting caused by chemotherapy can be divided into acute vomiting and delayed vomiting. Acute vomiting is defined as occurring within 24 hours of chemotherapy, vomiting, delayed vomiting after chemotherapy is vomiting occurs within 1 week now, and vomiting have been very effective treatments, such as hormones, metoclopramide, and improvement in many of the 5 plastic receptor inhibitors. These inhibitors include Ondansetron, Ondansetron, at district must stop, Kytril, and many other species, similar to the effects of various drugs. If poor appetite during chemotherapy patients, should be appropriate to add nutrients to intravenous rehydration, while applications to protect the liver, kidney drugs.
Common side effects of chemotherapy (3) other digestive tract during chemotherapy response: Because the proliferation of gastrointestinal mucosa is an active organization, the common mucosal damage during chemotherapy, the damage mainly in the form of inflammation, such as stomatitis, esophagitis , oral ulcer and so on. Ka Wan with fluorouracil drugs appear ulcerative oral mucosal inflammation and the opportunity to most applications than the single application of a continuous frequency of occurrence is much higher. Patient discomfort is the main pain and can not eat. Treatment can be symptomatic of oral vitamin Bp and treatment, such as local application of anesthetic mouthwash to maintain regular oral hygiene, mouth ulcer treatment using a variety of powder, patches. Not eating for nutritional support.
Diarrhea and constipation are also common adverse reactions of chemotherapy drugs. Its symptoms are often applied in large doses the case of continuous prone to the occasional bloody diarrhea can occur. Indicates the presence of bloody diarrhea digestive tract ulceration and bleeding. Chemotherapy in patients with diarrhea during the stool routine examination should be conducted, pay attention to a merger of the existence of an intestinal infection, should be used if infection is antibiotics, not infected with antidiarrheal drugs given to the simple diarrhea. To avoid severe diarrhea leading to dehydration and malnutrition, should be rehydration. Constipation can be given laxatives, should be added to cellulose content in food laxative.
Common side effects of chemotherapy (4) pulmonary toxicity: not common, usually appears too slow and delayed, the majority of applications in a few months after chemotherapy, manifested as dry cough and shortness of breath. Lung toxicity caused by drugs: bleomycin, busulfan, mitomycin low. Pulmonary toxicity of chemotherapy drugs currently no treatment effects.
(5) cardiac toxicity: including heart disease, ECG changes, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemic changes. The most common cause cardiac toxicity of the drug is doxorubicin, the use of doxorubicin has a strict dose limits. Now, a number of improvements doxorubicin drug, these drugs significantly reduced the toxicity of the heart. Cardiac toxicity of preventive measures, including the application of myocardial protection agents, carefully selected indications, close observation of patient response must be carried out prior to chemotherapy in patients with ECG and understand the past history of heart disease and so on.
(6) liver toxicity: the drugs themselves or the cause of drug metabolites in the body. Since most chemotherapy drugs go through the liver metabolism, or via the blood circulation through the liver, liver damage so common in clinical practice. Acute liver damage is a process, manifested as elevated transaminase and serum bilirubin, high-dose chemotherapy drugs can cause liver fibrosis. Its prevention and treatment of liver in the application of chemotherapy drugs.
(7) renal toxicity: Most chemotherapy drugs need to be excreted through the kidneys, so the kidney is an important chemotherapeutic drug toxicity in the organs. Terms of kidney damage in laboratory tests showed serum creatinine intoxicated, blood urea nitrogen increased, proteinuria, and severe cases renal failure can occur. The highest frequency of renal toxicity caused by the drug is sold along in the application of this drug requires a lot of fluid.
(8) bladder detoxification role: chemotherapy drug through the kidneys via the ureter into the bladder, the retention in the bladder can damage the bladder mucosa caused by chemical bladder inflammation. Common drug is cyclophosphamide cyclophosphamide gaze intently gaze intently different plastic and rubber. Patients can be frequent urination, urgency and dysuria, and occasionally hematuria. Prevention and treatment including the application of protective agents one by one pot retinoic acid has been sparse, and the hydration and diuretic.
(9) the impact on sexual function: Many chemotherapy drugs can affect the production of germ cells and endocrine function, reproductive cells mutagenicity, teratogenic effects on the fetus. Chemotherapy drugs can cause male infertility due to reduced sperm, the tumor drug Ning, cool plastic ring phosphorus, nitrogen mustard, Maryland and methyl Festival threat. Cyclophosphamide group first plastic, busulfan, nitrogen mustard can cause ovarian failure and menopause women. Chemotherapy drugs affect the reproductive system of children is much smaller.
Common side effects of chemotherapy (10) bone marrow suppression: the chemotherapy side effects that often appear in bone marrow suppression. Bone marrow is the body's blood-forming organs, chemotherapy can make the hematopoietic function of the body affected by different degrees, mainly for blood leukocytes and (or) platelets. According to the degree of reduction of bone marrow suppression can be divided into I, E, E, N level, I, E-class is not usually n
ecessary for processing, N-level should be actively treated. Should be used on patients with leukocyte reduction measures to prevent infection, such as the use of white blood cells in the bone marrow to promote the proliferation of drugs; platelet seriously reduced platelet should lose to prevent severe bleeding. Severe anemia should be a blood transfusion. Ordinary doses of chemotherapy usually does not cause severe bone marrow suppression.
Many readers may be concerned about hair loss caused by chemotherapy drugs, tell us about the way here. Chemotherapy drugs cause hair loss can be restored, that is in 1-2 months after the end of chemotherapy will re-grow hair, hair regeneration and this dense than the original, or even black. Scalp hair loss prevention can be the local temperatures, such as the ice cap during chemotherapy. Lead to hair loss drugs are daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, paclitaxel and so on.
- many chemotherapy drugs are _______ that cause inflammation and tissue sloughing if leakage outsidethe vein occurs?