Introduction of female urethral carcinoma, urethral cancer is doubled for men, more common in older postmenopausal women, 25% of patients over the age of 50.
(A) of the distal two-thirds of female urethral pathology is stratified squamous epithelium, the proximal one third of the transitional epithelial cells. Female urethral cancer depends on the histological classification. Most tumors were squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the second, a small number of sarcoma and other tumors. From the pathological analysis, the female urethra is divided into one-third and proximal two-thirds of the remote. When the tumor is located in front of the distal one third of the urethra cancer, those who exceed this limit for the whole urinary tract tumors. 46% of female urethral carcinoma of the Ministry for the former and 54% for the whole urethra. Three in the urinary tract epithelial cell types determine the type of urethral cancer tissue, the skin-like or squamous carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
(B) causes related to the cause of female urethral cancer has not yet sure, though that result in chronic stimulation of proliferation and the incidence of malignant lesions that may be relevant, such as Fu meat, papillomas, adenomas, and polyps in the high rate of malignant lesions. Malignancy in patients with urethral stricture rate was also high.
Introduction of female urethral carcinoma, (c) Clinical manifestations of papillary growth of the tumor often has a small, group of fungi as a soft, easy bleeding, can be necrotic, ulcerated, foul secretions. At first along the surface of tumor growth. Followed by invasion and deep, to the bladder neck and vulva. Eventually can cause the vagina thin urethra, urethral cancer and vaginal cancer in the early differential diagnosis may be difficult. To the late distal urethra to the inguinal lymph node metastases, while the proximal and the road is transferred to the general pelvic lymph nodes.
(D) Treatment of female urethral cancer treatment and tumor staging, and pathological little to anterior urethral squamous cell carcinoma of the basic method of treatment is part of the urethral resection. Distal urethral cancer, lymph node metastasis less, only as part of the transurethral resection is sufficient to get cured. All urethral squamous cell carcinoma of the prognosis is poor, regardless of how their treatment, including surgery, radiation or both combined, are the same. All the same poor prognosis of adenocarcinoma of the urethra, five years survival rate of about 32%. Stage at the same stage squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the expected survival rate is similar to a variety of cell types on the efficiency of radiation therapy is similar. Case of a single approach to the high rate of local recurrence in 46% -64%, respectively.
The size of the primary lesion and the relationship between lymph node metastasis rate was not obvious, and the site of primary tumor and lymph node metastasis was significantly related between. Anterior urethral cancer, lymph node metastasis rate was 13%, 30% of all urinary tract carcinoma. First visit, metastasis less than 5%. The most common site of distant metastasis is the lung, liver, bone and brain, and distant metastasis can be found in the cases before his death only 14% of all cases. Survival of patients without treatment is] 2-18 months, treatment failure in 75% of patients died within 12 months, 94% died within 2 years. The cause of death is often a local spread, secondary infections and urinary tract obstruction.
Introduction of female urethral carcinoma, (e) radiation therapy of small tumor diameter less than 2cm, the use of irradiation can be inserted within the organization. But in most cases need to be inserted within the organization and in vitro irradiation combined with irradiation in order to improve the outcome. Irradiated tumor boundary edge more than 0.5cm.
- urethra introduction