Cancer surgery patients need a variety of nutrients

Cancer surgery patients need a variety of nutrients, nutrients can be summed up into two categories: one of essential nutrients, which include sugar, fat and protein; the second is a small amount of nutrients, including vitamins, minerals and trace elements, these substances to regulate metabolism and function, enzyme synthesis, and metabolism are not lack of raw materials for the door. Muscles, organs and various tissues and cells need to live power supply heat. Into the basal metabolic heat required is about 600. Little activity is required l800_1800caL surgery, due to the trauma of child surgery and inflammation, the body's metabolic rate increase, if patients with high fever, body temperature is increased by 1 C, metabolic rate increased about 13%, infection or other complications , the heat will need more. Thermal energy requirements and body weight, age, gender, disease related to the nature. Changes in the general adult weight 1kg, the heat can be a corresponding increase or decrease of about 6%. Three basic nutrients can supply energy, sugar can be oxidized per gram of heat from the 84cal, fat per gram 9cal, sugar accounted for about 60% of total energy _70%, fat 20% _25% _15%, 10% protein.
Cancer surgery patients need a variety of nutrients. Sugar (carbohydrate) intake of carbohydrate digestion absorbed into the skin clamp Portugal, part of the heat generated by oxidation, part of it into glycogen for storage within the body. Too much sugar is transformed into fat and protein. To a patient for some reason the formation of negative energy balance, consumption is bound to reserve sun, first glycogen. However, the stock of glycogen in the body, adult only 300rl. Consumption was less than a day. So, then consumption of fat, through gluconeogenesis role to supplement the heat and maintain blood glucose levels. Besides the lack of supply of glucose oxidation under heat, often caused by fat oxidation pay the blood. Therefore, fasting, intake or consumption from the increase in risk of street at a certain amount of intravenous glucose supplement is necessary. Its purpose is:
(I) the supply of heat: the energy of the nervous system are mainly composed of sugar supply, as it timely to add.
(2) saving the consumption of protein for body growth, repair and antibody to form their own conditions.
(3) to prevent intoxicated hyperlipidemia and metabolic acidosis.
(4) to reduce the consumption of glycogen, the liver's detoxification function to maintain and protect.
(5) to prevent low blood sugar.
Cancer surgery patients need a variety of nutrients 2. Protein
(1) the role of the protein: It is an important component of human organizations: the time to maintain the white blood plasma protein levels and colloid osmotic pressure; for tissue growth, metabolism and repair; fibrinogen synthesis; globulin and antibody formation; synthesis and metabolism of certain enzymes; maintain liver function.
(2) the source and the intake of protein: protein amino acid composition of two Hong: the essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids. The former must be ingested, the body can not eat. The latter can be in the body of essential amino acids and nitrogen compounds from the synthesis or by the sugar sheet. Essential amino acids the human body needs mainly from animal protein, plant protein, in addition to soybeans, other content is less, not entirely. Such as vegetable protein intake should be varied to compensate for their deficiencies. Even if the use of animal protein, should also be more variety, so as not to result in a lack of certain essential amino acids.
Recovering from malnutrition or general surgery patients, daily protein needs of adult 2_3g/kg body weight, about half of the need for animal protein in patients with kidney failure, restricted protein intake should be moderate.
Cancer surgery patients need a variety of nutrients (3) Notes on protein intake
1) for oral administration, because oral protein safer. Oral nutrition difficult or who can be reached by intravenous infusion of hydrolyzed proteins or amino acids. Generally do not lose the whole blood, plasma or human albumin as a protein or the complement of nutrients reasons: uneconomical. According to statistics, 19% of each increase of plasma protein, the need to lose protein 30g, such as to enter the amount of plasma protein containing 6% _7g% total, it would take blood 800_1000, the plasma 400_500ml. After the input is divided into amino acids can not be used by the body, and in the body or organization such as the need to retain for some time after the destruction of hemoglobin, red blood cells to be used in order to be released. Plasma protein containing amino acids to be incomplete. insecure, transfusion reactions, the source virus infection (inflammation, HIV) is considered, and sometimes due to excessive use, so that the phase overload cardiac complications. limited sources of blood, but also to prepare the inconvenience, etc., so, in addition to reduced blood volume in patients with anemia and without the country, outside the country as a protein slurry and gas or to correct malnutrition in terms of low protein blood red, only applies to the following conditions : emergency surgery, his condition does not allow for too long; protein synthesis and metabolism disorder, otherwise difficult to raise the level of plasma protein: acute severe nutritional edema or hypoproteinemia, to lose concentration after albumin in two cases (25% ) or concentrated plasma is appropriate.
2) whether oral, tube feeding or intravenous infusion in order to ensure adequate intake of protein synthesis and was used for tissue repair, to avoid the heat and as the consumption of energy should also be given appropriate (sugar based), the common ratio 19 N (equal to 6.25g protein or 30g lean meat), the need for heat 150_250cal.
3) Early surgical trauma, due to the pituitary, adrenal cortex hyperfunction, decomposing body in the organization, therefore, a certain intake of calories and protein is necessary, attempting to increase protein intake to achieve positive nitrogen balance is not possible .