Good diet before diagnosis is linked with lower mortality among ovarian cancer survivors

The influence of diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor and potential prognostic factor, on survival after an ovarian cancer diagnosis is unclear. To evaluate diet quality and the overall influence of diet on ovarian cancer survival, Cynthia A. Thomson, Ph.D., R.D., a professor from the Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and University of Arizona Cancer Center researcher, at the University of Arizona in Tucson, AZ, and colleagues analyzed data from 636 cases of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study or Clinical Trials from 1993 to 1998. Dietary intake was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and estimates of overall diet quality were measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. …

Why early-stage breast cancer survivors opt for mastectomy — ScienceDaily

“According to research evidence, survival rates are considered equal,” explained dean Nancy Fahrenwald of the South Dakota State University College of Nursing. Working through the South Dakota Women’s Cancer Network, the South Dakota Comprehensive Cancer Control Program and seven cancer treatment centers in the state, Fahrenwald got responses from 1,093 breast cancer survivors who had been diagnosed in the last five years. To determine which of the nine independent variables tipped the scales toward mastectomy, she turned to associate professor Chris Saunders of the mathematics and statistics department. “The statistics were not meant to be innovative but to provide an answer that is robust and rigorous,” said Saunders, who used logistic regression to analyze the survey results…

First step: From human cells to tissue-engineered esophagus

The tissue-engineered esophagus formed on a relatively simple biodegradable scaffold after the researchers transplanted mouse and human organ-specific stem/progenitor cells into a murine model, according to principal investigator Tracy C. Grikscheit, MD, of the Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine program of The Saban Research Institute and pediatric surgeon at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles…

Adenocarcinoma: UK tops global league table for gullet cancer in men

Rates of SCC have remained fairly stable or have even fallen over the past few years, but those of adenocarcinoma have risen, particularly in high income countries. In 2012, esophageal cancer was the eighth most common cancer worldwide. The researchers used data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents volume 10 to calculate age, sex, and country specific proportions of the two types of esophageal cancer. These figures were then applied to IARC global data on the number of new esophageal cancer cases in 2012 (GLOBOCAN 2012), and age-standardised rates calculated. …

Cryptic clues drive new theory of bowel cancer development

The researchers produced evidence that stem cells are responsible for maintaining and regenerating the ‘crypts’ that are a feature of the bowel lining, and believe these stem cells are involved in bowel cancer development, a controversial finding as scientists are still divided on the stem cells’ existence. Using 3D imaging technologies, Dr Chin Wee Tan and Professor Tony Burgess from the Structural Biology division at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute showed for the first time the bowel generates new intestinal crypts by a process called ‘budding’. The finding overturns the existing theory of how intestinal crypts form, with significant implications for our understanding of bowel cancer development. Intestinal ‘crypts’ are pocket-like wells in the bowel wall that produce mucous and absorb nutrients and water…

Human cancer prognosis related to newly identified immune cell

The research is published online October 16, 2014 in the journal Cancer Cell. Molecules associated with these cells, newly identified by the UCSF researchers, could be the focus of new immunotherapies that are more precisely targeted than current immunotherapies now in clinical trials, said Matthew Krummel, PhD, professor of pathology at UCSF and the leader of the study. In fact, the UCSF researchers concluded that the presence of these cells may be the reason current immunotherapies aimed at boosting T lymphocyte responses have any effectiveness whatsoever. Krummel’s lab team depleted the population of these already rare cells in mice and demonstrated that the immune system was then unable to control tumors, even when the mice were given immunotherapeutic treatments…

Personalized ovarian cancer vaccines developed

“This has the potential to dramatically change how we treat cancer,” says Dr. Pramod Srivastava, director of the Carole and Ray Neag Comprehensive Cancer Center at UConn Health and one of the principal investigators on the study. “This research will serve as the basis for the first ever genomics-driven personalized medicine clinical trial in immunotherapy of ovarian cancer, and will begin at UConn Health this fall,” Srivastava says. UConn bioinformatics engineer Ion Mandoiu, associate professor of computer science and engineering, collaborated as the other principal investigator for the study, which has been in development for the past four years…

Modeling tumor dormancy: What makes a tumor switch from dormant to malignant?

A new computational model developed in the laboratory of Salvatore Torquato, a Professor of Chemistry at Princeton University, may help illuminate the conditions surrounding tumor dormancy and the switch to a malignant state. Published today in PLOS ONE, the so-called cellular automaton model simulated various scenarios of tumor growth leading to tumor suppression, dormancy or proliferation. “The power of the model is that it lets people to test medically realistic scenarios,” Torquato said. In future collaborations, these scenarios could be engineered in laboratory experiments and the observed outcomes could be used to calibrate the model. …