How to understand the staging classification and treatment

By | December 11, 2011

The evolution of cancer occurrence and development of metastasis, is a long slow process of development. In this process, due to the complex function of the body, shown at each stage of the biological characteristics are different. For example, a very early micro-tumor can grow very slowly, or even strong resistance in the body condition of defense, will die a natural death. And a malignant tumor has come to late, because when the body resistance to decline in host defense and anti-tumor and the antagonistic defense, the tumor in a dominant position, so not only grow fast, and may move quickly and cause deaths. Therefore, in the course of treatment of malignant tumors, it has long been aware of the clinical stage according to the principles of treatment options.Staging classification and treatment, early limitations of the best cancer surgery, should be listed as the preferred treatment, the cure rate of up to 70% -90% or more, such as early lip cancer, salivary gland, thyroid cancer, cervical cancer, esophageal cancer , gastric cancer cure rate of 90%, colon cancer, rectal cancer , laryngeal cancer, ovarian cancer, and so can reach more than 70%, while those outside the scope of the earlier, shall consider surgery combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy a combination of comprehensive treatment approach in order to obtain better treatment results. Clinical stage is based on patient history, clinical examination have seen the size of tumor volume, scope and laboratory examinations, laboratory indexes in comprehensive analysis, patients with tumors of stage of development of the judge, and used to guide treatment program selection and prognosis.
Staging classification and treatment, generally based on tumor size, the scope, metastasis and involvement of adjacent organs and body condition, probably divided into early, the night three or divided according to the clinical experience from specialist I, II, III , IV period. Early: tumor confined to an organ part of the organization (in a certain anatomical region). Not violations of the surrounding organs and tissues, no transfer phenomenon, patients with obvious symptoms, the body function normally end power is good. Medium: large tumor size has been linked to violations of accounting for most of the organs and adjacent organs, Pat has been a partial transfer of leaching, but not yet found that distant metastasis, the patient has symptoms, general condition and ability to work is still good. Late: a huge tumor volume, the wider the second violation in which organs and spread to adjacent organs, or swelling of the liver primary swelling is small, even one o'clock yet to find the primary tumor, but has been localized to the lymph node metastasis or distant organ metastasis. Patients with systemic physical decline or there has been cachexia, basically lost the ability to work. Determine the clinical stage of the cancer patients for clinical treatment and prognosis partakers significance.
Staging classification and treatment, in order to make more scientific and clinical stage, the International Association of anti-malignant tumor disease has long been of great importance to the classification in 1953, three pairs of breast cancer, cervical cancer, laryngeal cancer clinical stage of disease classification, to mention two of the Provisional draft after several changes in 1959 to discuss two proposed classification of adenocarcinoma of the clinical stage of disease, has identified 27 kinds of disease sub-blue method, and in 10 languages and published worldwide. Today, doctors around the world has become familiar, referred to as "malignant ITNM Classification", especially breast cancer, laryngeal cancer, stomach cancer , cervical cancer and carcinoma of five kinds of cancer Palace, and further amended in 1972, for clinical States Scholars trial, the trial period in 1973-1977. This classification is to record the scope of evaluation of malignant tumors, treatment options Wo were the basis for treatment. And in ongoing research to develop more evil Sa TNM classification of tumors.
We believe that both the clinical stage. Or the development of TNM classification, clinical treatment of cancer are worth considering follow. Because the choice of treatment according to staging categories more in line with the biological characteristics of tumors, cancer treatment can avoid the subjective and arbitrary E projects and, more conducive to toe assessment of cancer treatment and prognosis. Clinically, according to the above belong to the early stage carcinoma in situ, or solid tumors, more complete removal of local advocates. As in a membrane of skin carcinoma in situ or in the station can be applied laser, microwave or frozen method, the better Qingkuang systemic immune function can be achieved for fully cured purposes. If you go early to pursue non-removal of the tumor the better the range, which is obviously not necessary, while the blind expansion of the scope of operation may be damaged to some extent, the body's immune function, but the prognosis adversely. This expansion in the past have breast cancer and head and neck cancer preventive radical neck dissection in the application process has been confirmed. Breast cancer in the history of surgery has undergone radical mastectomy simple mastectomy, extended radical, ultra-radical surgery, partial return to a simple process of ten comprehensive treatment. Proved the better surgery is not the scope of history has been called ultra-long-term effect of radical operation did not achieve the desired effect, but with effects similar to simple partial resection. After thinking about it seriously after observing that this ultra-radical surgery, does not meet the biological principles of self-breast, the more serious damage to the mammary gland defense system around the lymphatic function. At this time, that is, the mid-20th century, 50, on volume of more than 2c, the clinic has been suspected to have lymph node metastases underwent modified radical mastectomy; tumor located in the medial or central breast, tumor volume in less than 2cm3, and lymph node metastasis was not found those rows of simple excision; breast cancer in the tail, and its volume is less than 2c, the clinical examination found no lymph node metastasis, the line of breast resection. After a number of clinical statistics show that removal of the above principles of breast cancer patients, not only the therapeutic effect of modified radical mastectomy and radical surgery is different, and earlier in patients with radical resection alone compared to long-term effects are similar. Neck dissection in head and neck cancer patients is also in the case, also experienced in the history of the transfer with or without expansion of the cleaning routine, selective cleaning, treatment of the cleaning, or early in patients with non-conventional cleaning process. Practice shows that, early cervical lymph node metastasis was not found those, too early a wide range of neck dissection, not only unnecessary, they undermine the neck lymphatic system. For the occurrence of metastasis, if not given promptly removed, of course, unreasonable, and its prognosis is not satisfactory.Staging classification and treatment, therefore, must choose a different clinical stages according to surgical procedures and treatment programs. Such as the early selection of simple resection or local treatment, radical or extended radical mid-term options, select the systemic treatment of advanced, elective resection for local tumor or metastases to create conditions that may be more reasonable to seek a more favorable prognosis favorable. It should also be noted that, due to the biological characteristics of malignant tumors with special, whether it is early, mid and late patients, but also element of the chosen treatment is local excision, extended resection, radical resection or systemic chemotherapy to strengthen all systemic immune mechanisms should take into account the protection and postoperative function and quality of life requ
irements. In addition the choice of what kind of procedure, and everything will be fine after surgery can not be lost due to surgery or vigilance, should still be tight and long-term immune surveillance series followed up. Once metastasis or just suspicious recurrence, should decisively to take remedial measures, such as re-operation or radiotherapy, chemotherapy; these are essential.

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