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Mammography screening: Patient pamphlets do not affect willingness to participate

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In Germany, the invitation to undergo mammography screening that is sent to all women between the ages of 50 and 69 is accompanied by an information leaflet explaining the advantages and disadvantages of screening. In this issue of Deutsches �rzteblatt International, Elisabeth Gummersbach and colleagues report on a study in which they determined how well the prospective subjects understood the information presented and whether this information influenced their willingness to undergo screening. It was found that the leaflet itself made little or no difference to the women’s willingness to participate. Rather, the most important factor in the decision whether to be screened was usually a doctor’s personal recommendation…

Investigational oral drug combo shows promise for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma

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“Ixazomib is an investigational, oral proteasome inhibitor with promising anti-myeloma effects and low rates of peripheral neuropathy,” says Shaji Kumar, M.D., a hematologist at Mayo Clinic and lead author of the study. “While it is well known that a combination of bortezomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone is highly effective in treating newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, we wanted to study the safety, tolerability and activity of ixazomib in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.” Dr. Kumar and colleagues enrolled 65 patients (15 to phase 1 and 50 to phase 2) between November 2010 and February 2012. …

First steps in formation of pancreatic cancer identified

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In an online issue of Cancer Discovery, the scientists described the molecular steps necessary for acinar cells in the pancreas — the cells that release digestive enzymes — to become precancerous lesions. …

Epigenome of cardiac muscle cell mapped

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The epigenome is the totality of epigenetic mechanisms that decide which genes are active in a cell and which are not. Changes in internal or environmental conditions, such as nutrition, stress, or drugs, can leave behind epigenetic patterns. …

Updated criteria for diagnosing multiple myeloma published by international research group

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“Our group, which includes more than 180 myeloma researchers worldwide, has updated the definition of multiple myeloma for diagnostic purposes to include validated biomarkers in addition to the current clinical symptoms used for diagnosis which include, elevated blood calcium levels, kidney failure, anemia and bone lesions,” said lead author S. Vincent Rajkumar, M.D. a hematologist at Mayo Clinic. …

Prostate cancer, kidney disease detected in urine samples on the spot

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But a cunningly simple new device can stop that vital information from “going to waste.” Brigham Young University chemist Adam Woolley and his students made a device that can detect markers of kidney disease and prostate cancer in a few minutes. All you have to do is drop a sample into a tiny tube and see how far it goes. That’s because the tube is lined with DNA sequences that will latch onto disease markers and nothing else. Urine from someone with a clean bill of health would flow freely through the tube (the farther, the better)…

Prognostic factors identified for peripheral squamous cell carcinomas of the lung

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Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and lung squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) account for 20-30% of all NSCLC. SCC can be classified as either central (c-SCC) or peripheral (p-SCC) depending on the primary location…

Novel software application can stratify early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients

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The majority of NSCLC patients are diagnosed with advanced-stage disease which is concomitant with an exceptionally poor prognosis, 5-year survival rate of 4%. In contrast, tumors detected at an early stage have 5-year survival rates of 54%. …

MicroRNA molecules serve as on/off switches for inflammation

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“We’re living at a time where the aging population is growing,” said Ryan O’Connell, D.Phil., assistant professor of pathology, whose lab made the discovery. …

Two-faced gene: SIRT6 prevents some cancers but promotes sun-induced skin cancer

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Previously considered protective, SIRT6 is part of a family of seven proteins called sirtuins that help regulate genomic stability and prevent some of the genetic flaws associated with aging. …