Advanced cancer patients with advanced cancer are symptoms of severe pain by torture, often there may be pain, nausea, vomiting, breathing difficulties, incontinence and other symptoms. Such as to alleviate these symptoms, the patient's pain can be reduced, and thus obtain comfort.
(1) Malnutrition: the chronic consumption of cancer patients, anorexia induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy side effects such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, oral disease, leading to physical weakness and malnutrition. Therefore, according to patient preference, taste, nutritional needs and their families together to develop diet plans, regulating pattern variety, some color, flavor and beauty, easy to digest, nutritious diet. Encourage patients to Eat small meals often and food for patients to create a good environment, and with the grant to help improve patient Zhuxiaohuayao other appetite. Based on the patient regularly assess the nutritional status can be given to factors such as nutrition with the alternatives, as chosen by oral feeding, if necessary, intravenous hyperalimentation.
(2) Pain: Pain is a common symptom of advanced cancer patients, organ involvement or because the tumor cells, bone marrow, or radiotherapy and chemotherapy response as a result of pain. Current pain control, there are two main methods, namely, drugs control and non-drug control. Also hypnosis and massage the skin has some effect. Pain is a subjective feeling, different people have different reactions to pain, while pain and is a complex phenomenon, requiring nurses to develop pain care program, accurate records must be carefully evaluated and observed form of pain, includes each area of pain episodes, time, extent, can alleviate the drugs and methods of pain control under the constant changes the patient care plan.
(3) the skin, mucous membrane of the care: patients dying because of physical weakness, and prolonged bed rest can lead to bedsores occur. Sheets should be kept neat, dry, turn over time for patients, sponge bath, massage pressure areas, and to conscientiously implement the morning, evening care, maintenance of patient hygiene, in order to enhance patient comfort. Can not eat or suffering for the patient to give oral disease oral care, unable to expectoration of terminal patients, the oral care in a timely manner through the elimination of sputum retention in the mouth, if necessary, by suction aspiration of sputum, head to the side to prevent accidental smoking and help mucus drainage, keep the airway open, keeping the nose clean put, gently wipe the swab can be used saline nose, and coated with lubricants. If the dying patient can not be closed eyelids, can drip oil gauze and chloramphenicol eye drops regularly and promptly wipe the eye secretions with saline cotton balls to keep terminal patients clean and comfortable.
(4) excretion care: constipation, diarrhea, urinary AIDS to stay, urinary incontinence, often caused great suffering to dying patients, prevention and early resolution of these issues can promote comfort and help improve patient quality of life.
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