Prostate cancer

By | May 9, 2012

Prostate cancer is common malignancy male reproductive system. According to the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the incidence in China is lower than Europe and the United States, but the upward trend in the past 20 years. The incidence of prostate cancer with age is proportional, according to foreign statistics, males under the age of 50 rare; 50-60 years the incidence of prostate cancer accounts for 1 / 3; 70 years old accounted for about 1 / 2; 80 years old and about 3 / 4.
The etiology of prostate cancer is not entirely clear, a lot of tips and sex hormones on the clinical data. May be estrogen and androgen imbalance, especially in male hormones. Studies have found that sexual activity in the groups with higher incidence of prostate cancer in high, and in the testes of patients after resection rarely occur; in patients with liver cirrhosis, liver inactivation of the reduced ability of estrogen, estrogen levels, so the incidence of prostate cancer is not high. There is also information indicating that environmental pollution, gonococcal infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia, excessive coffee and alcohol, also with the occurrence of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer occurred in the posterior lobe, but occasionally on both sides of leaf disease. Prostate cancer is mainly adenocarcinoma, accounting for about 97%, and squamous cell carcinoma is rare. Prostate cancer at an early stage can have no symptoms when the tumor grew to the development of the increase to a certain volume of the prostate gland, and bladder neck obstruction occurs when the symptoms. At this time there are frequent urination, urgency, urine flow is slow, difficult urination, urinary retention or other symptoms, a small number of patients may have symptoms of hematuria or a transfer. When oppression or violations of the surrounding lymph nodes or blood vessels, you may experience lower extremity edema, may occur with bone metastasis, low back pain, lower limb paralysis.
Prostate digital rectal examination is an effective method for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer diagnosis, because this occurred in the prostate cancer, and both sides of the leaf after the leaf edge, the Ministry of hard texture lesions, digital rectal examination can therefore reach nodules. DRE of prostate cancer glands showed increased nodule hard, rugged, central sulcus disappears, glands fixed, sometimes invading the intestinal wall. Such as men over the age of 45 do DRE screening in the intestine, the early detection of prostate cancer and may improve the cure rate. If that examination found an induration in the prostate, regardless of how parts of its distribution, prominent in the glandular or not, whether the rules should be thought of the possibility of the disease.
Higher degree of malignancy of prostate cancer, early stage of local infiltration and lymph node metastasis was tumor often violated on both sides of seminal vesicle and pelvic wall, very few violations of the rectum. Along the pelvic lymph node metastasis to nearby lymph nodes, and then transferred to the internal iliac, common iliac, para-aortic and mediastinal lymph nodes, as well as supraclavicular lymph nodes. Blood of prostate cancer metastasis to the bone can also be the most common is the pelvis, lumbar spine, femur and ribs. You can also metastasis to the lung from the blood, liver, kidney, brain and other organs.
Early detection of prostate cancer if diagnosed early, you can get better treatment.The diagnosis of prostate cancer, commonly used in clinical examination are: (1) ultrasound examination. (2) X-ray contrast examination. (3) radionuclide scan o (4) CT examination o (5) MRI. (6), urine and prostatic fluid cytology. (7) acid phosphatase (PAP) measured. (8), prostate specific antigen (PSA) determination. (9) seminal plasma protein (r-Sm) determined. (10) prostate biopsy.

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