Nasopharyngeal pathology, nasopharynx epithelium coated thin layer, mainly by squamous epithelium, pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and transitional epithelium. Often in the mucosal lamina propria lymphocyte infiltration, teaching film and teach the lower a serous gland salivary glands. NPC is the drape from the nasopharyngeal epithelial cancer.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells more than 95% poorly differentiated, highly malignant. National experts recommend using both the World Health Organization 1991 (WHO) histological classification and development of our country to develop a "standardized diagnosis and treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma," classification schemes. "Nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment norms" histological classification of nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared with treatment norms WHO classification WHO classification of highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of low differentiation squamous cell carcinoma of the vesicular nucleus cell carcinoma of the Low degree of differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the undifferentiated carcinoma keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the differentiated non-keratinizing undifferentiated carcinoma.
Nasopharyngeal pathology, 2. Growth and expansion
Nasopharyngeal lateral wall of the predilection sites in the nasopharynx (especially pharyngeal recess) and the top wall. Nose Day because of high malignancy, showing invasive growth, and directly adjacent to the surrounding tissues and organs infiltration, expansion: up to direct damage to the skull base bone, but also through the broken hole, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, the internal carotid artery and the posterior ethmoid or sphenoid sinus natural channel or fissure intracranial invasion, involving the cranial nerves; forward violations of the nasal cavity, maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus before, and then invaded the orbit, but also through the brain, superior orbital fissure or the wing tube, wing Teng invasive orbital fossa; tumor invasion to the lateral parapharyngeal space available, Yan fossa and masticatory muscles, etc.; back invasive cervical soft tissue, cervical; down involving the oropharynx or hypopharynx.
Nasopharyngeal mucosa is rich network of lymphatic vessels, and lymphatic drainage can be across the midline to the contralateral neck. Cervical lymph node metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma early transfer rate. Cancer Hospital, Sun Yat-sen statistics, the time of diagnosis 70% -80% of patients had lymph node metastasis, 40% -50% of the patients with bilateral cervical lymph node metastasis. Found in the location of lymph node metastasis up to the digastric muscle on the deep cervical lymph node, followed by the deep cervical lymph nodes and in the posterior triangle of the nerve chain lymph nodes.
Pathology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma distant metastasis and cervical lymph node metastasis, with metastatic lymph nodes increases, the number increased, the chance of distant metastasis was significantly increased. Cancer Hospital, Sun Yat-sen statistics, the cumulative 5-year distant metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was 20% – 25%, N2, N3 patients 5-year cumulative distant metastasis rates were 30% and 45%, Petrovich Z and other reports NO, N3 patients with distant metastasis were 17% (11/193) and 74% (69/93). The most common site of distant metastasis was bone, followed by lung, liver, and often multiple organs simultaneously.
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