Hepatocellular carcinoma associated antigen

By | April 23, 2012

Hepatocellular carcinoma associated antigen, liver cancer antigen protein has a relatively mature research, many antigen proteins as tumor markers in the diagnosis of liver played an important role, in which alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most important and earliest applications tumor markers in the clinical one. These antigen as a tumor marker not only to cancer screening and diagnosis can also be related to the tumor in the preparation of purified antibodies for tumor targeting therapy. Here and liver cancer antigen on proteins and enzymes to make a brief introduction.
First, the AFP
Hepatocellular carcinoma as the main tumor marker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is widely used in liver cancer screening, early diagnosis, differential diagnosis and efficacy evaluation, prognosis and so on. At present the precise physiological function of AFP is not clear and may maintain a normal baby girl Chen, regulating fatty acid and immune suppression and other effects. Diagnosis of liver cancer AFP sensitivity, specificity, respectively: 78.9%, 78.1%. AFP concentration in HCC patients with tumor size and the level was significantly related to differentiation. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma generally only low levels of AFP, but hepatoblastoma patients generally have higher levels of AFP.
AFP for liver cancer also have an important role in the evaluation. If after treatment, especially after surgery, AFP decreased to normal levels, indicating a better prognosis; if dropped but not to normal, the prompt surgery may not be thorough. AFP decreased to normal so it has become a radical surgery to determine whether one of the indicators.
AFP the heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma has also become an important diagnostic index, the use of AFP and AFP heterogeneity combined detection, can improve the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and differential diagnosis.
Second, liver-related antigen, -glutamyl peptide enzyme Air transfer
turn skin enzyme -glutamic acid (-GT) is a glycoprotein, -amino acids is a key enzyme in one cycle, serum -GT mainly from the liver cells are secreted enzymes, – GT activity in normal liver expressed low, and in hepatocellular carcinoma increased significantly.
Although the serum -GT expression in hepatocellular carcinoma was significantly increased, but the increase of serum -GT can also be seen in chronic active hepatitis, extrahepatic bile duct obstruction, acute pancreatitis, secondary liver cancer and post myocardial infarction and so on, so -GT as a diagnostic indicator of the specificity of diagnosis of liver cancer is poor, mainly used in the clinical evaluation of liver cancer prognosis.
Third, the abnormal prothrombin
Prothrombin on liver cells by vitamin K dependent enzyme to be the role of the formation of prothrombin activity. In the absence of vitamin K, vitamin K Jun antagonists enzyme or the existence of such circumstances, will be formed to go. -carboxyl prothrombin (DCP), the abnormal prothrombin. DCP-positive rate of diagnosis of liver cancer at 35% – 95% in benign liver disease, metastatic liver cancer in the false positive rate generally below 10%, and the DCP level correlated with AFP element, so the two can improve the joint detection diagnosis. DCP is mainly used to help make a diagnosis of AFP detection of liver cancer, and benign and malignant liver disease and the differential diagnosis of metastatic liver cancer, but not for the early diagnosis of liver cancer.
IV, -L-fucose enzymes Xi
-L-fucosidase (AFU) is a lysosomal acid hydrolases, mainly in the liver, pancreas, brain, fibroblast lysosomes, in the decomposition of sugars play an important role. Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with AFU activity was significantly higher than normal serum, liver cirrhosis and metastatic liver cancer patients. AFU positive rate of diagnosis of liver cancer in 70% -80%, and AFU level and the level of AFP and tumor size. AFU in metastatic liver cancer, extrahepatic malignant tumors about 20% of the false positive, so AFU as a diagnostic marker for liver cancer, primary liver cancer has a high sensitivity of liver cancer can help AFP make a diagnosis and early diagnosis, but the differential diagnosis of liver cancer-free for help.
Hepatocellular carcinoma associated antigen, five, other
Hepatoma cells compared to other closely related to 1-antitrypsin as well, M2-type pyruvate kinase, 5 – nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzyme vinegar V, alkaline phosphatase I, lactate dehydrogenase enzyme 4 / 5 ratio, ferritin and acidic protein with the iron workers. These antigenic proteins and enzymes in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma suggestive of some, but the value is not large, can be used for other indicators is not clear when the joint detection.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *