Urinary bladder cancer is the most common form of cancer, accounting for3%of systemic cancer, age of onset is most common in50-70years, male to female ratio is about 4:1.Cause of bladder cancer has not yet entirely clear.In recent years, study finds Naphthylamine, biphenyl, and magenta plastic and other chemical substances is an important carcinogen.Engaged in dye, rubber, gas, cable, plastic and leather professional staff,high incidence ofbladder cancer.In addition, smoking, parasitic or viral infections, abnormal metabolism of tryptophan in vivo, and chronic bladder changes, also related to the occurrence of bladder cancer.
Effective diagnosis of bladder cancer, bladder cancer in bladder cancer accounts for the vast majority,86% ormore from the transitional cell, undifferentiated carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are rare.In addition to transitional cell carcinoma, other malignant tumor types also have their own characteristics:(l)are highly malignant bladder cancer, invasion and metastasis as early as the characteristics of deepanddifficult to cure.(2)adenocarcinoma is rare, often occur in urachal remnants of place.(3),rhabdomyosarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma is rare, common in male children and young people, showed extensive invasion, early metastasis,andoften fatal disease department.(4) Theonset of malignant lymphoma, neurofibroma, hemangioma, pheochromocytoma are rare, in which tumor cells can often addicted with hypertension.
Effective diagnosis of bladder cancer, the majority of bladder cancer was painless gross hematuria or microscopic hematuria as the first symptoms.The former can be seen with the naked eye in urine was bright red, tan or flesh wash water; which the naked eye can not see, can be found under the microscope only in red blood cells in urine (urine is not normal red blood cells).
Bladder cancer showed more intermittent, full hematuria, sometimes accompanied by blood clots.However, the amount of bleeding and duration of hematuria and malignant tumors, tumor size, scope and number of a certain relationship.But sometimes gross hematuria occurs when the tumor has been large or advanced stage; sometimes very small tumors may also appear a lot of hematuria.
Effective diagnosis of bladder cancer, hematuria was intermittent because the performance is stopped when the urine of patients likely to be overlooked, mistaken for a disease disappear without doing further examination in a timely manner.When patients showed only microscopic hematuria, because not accompanied by other symptoms, without being discovered until the attention only when gross hematuria.If the bladder cancer accompanied by infection, or lesions in the bladder trigone, then the urinary tract irritation may occur earlier.
In addition,frequenturination, urgency, bladder irritation, etc., may indicate bladder carcinoma in situ.Therefore, based on any lack of infection in patients with bladder irritation, should take positive and comprehensive examination of measures to ensure early to make a diagnosis.
Some patients due to larger tumor, or in the bladder neck, or blood clot formation, can cause urinary obstruction, dysuria or urethral pigs stay.Also occur in patients with advanced bladder cancer loss of appetite, nausea, malaise, fever, abdominal and perineal pain anal fall,andsome patients may appear lower back pain.
Effective diagnosis of bladder cancer in patients with multiple no positive signs of early, late, there may be weight loss, anemia, rectal examination by male patients, female patients attending the vagina can be reached by the bladder tumor, or cancer metastasis by vascular compression caused by lower extremity edema iliac .Individual patients in the lower abdomen hard mass palpable mass and tenderness.When the tumor invasion to the urethra, prostate and rectum can occur when the appropriate symptoms.When the tumor is located in the side of the ureteral orifices, causing infiltration of the ureteral orifice, the expansion can cause the side of the ureter, hydronephrosis.
Bladder cancer diagnosis, who appeared in more than40years of unexplained painless gross hematuria, should think of the possibility of urinary tract tumors, especially in the most common bladder cancer, hematuria is the urinary tract diseases The common symptoms, so you have to do further tests.In principle, the first pain-free, simple, and non-invasive examination, and examination by a trauma.
Effective diagnosis of bladder cancer, made possible in the pathological diagnosis before treatment, diagnosis can be used when the following checks:(1)urinalysis.(2)urine cytology.(3) B-ultrasound.(4),KUB and bladder and intravenous urography.(5) CTexamination.(6),cystoscopy and tumor biopsy.(7)immune enzyme assay.(8),urine flow cytometry.