Tumor vaccine therapy

By | April 20, 2012

Tumor vaccine therapy, tumor vaccine theory is based on the existence of human tumor cell tumor-associated antigen.
Has been demonstrated in human tumor antigens: embryonic antigens, such as AFP, CEA, PSA, MAGE-I; virus-related antigens, such as EB virus EBNA-1 gene product, SV40T antigen, human papilloma virus E6 and E7 gene product; differentiation antigens, such as MART a 1, TRP-I, enzyme neuraminidase; mutations of oncogenes and anti-cancer products, such as P2I ras, PI85, mp53; after chromosomal translocation fusion protein, such as the P210 protein; common tumor antigen, such as heat shock protein
In particular, tumor-associated antigen immunogenic tumor specific antigen and can induce humoral and cellular immune responses, especially to induce specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). CD8 + T cells which dissolve tumor cells directly, it is activated after the main release of perforin, the tumor cell membrane calcium channels out of balance, leading to electrolyte imbalance, cell swelling and apoptosis, while the release of digestive enzymes to tumor cells. CD8 + T cells release cytokines and activate macrophages, further release of cytokines, inhibition of tumor growth.
T cells (including CD8 + CTL and CD4 + T helper cells) cellular immune activation is the key. T cell activation in addition to tumor antigens and MHC complexes first signal, there must be a total of the second signal stimulating factor, one of the most important and critical is B7 molecules. It is expressed in activated B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, and T cells, CD28, CTLA-4 receptor binding, activation of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, resulting in cellular immunity. Because tumor cells do not express B7, so that the body of its immune tolerance. If the increased expression of B7 or B7 leaders and the tumor cells or CD28 and CD28 with CD3 antibody to activate T cells, T cells can enhance the role of killing tumor cells.
Adjuvant as a carrier, can stimulate monocytes and macrophages activity, while the release of anti-tumor cytokines, soluble antigen will be presented to other immune activity of T "B cells, to produce the immune response , breaking the body's immune tolerance of tumor. but also must be applied immunomodulatory agent, to remove the inhibition of T cell (Ts) (the current routine use of cyclophosphamide).
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