Esophageal cancer check (1) cytology
Method can be derived netting, set about to dual-chamber cylindrical pipe network; be cylindrical double-lumen tube nets into the lesion below the balloon, then inflate, slowly pull out the bag, so that friction with the disease, and finally rubbing the balloon to take specimens were smear staining. This method is not only the positive rate of 90%, and can be found in small early lesions (0.22cm).
(2) X-ray examination
a. Dayton meal examination: is the diagnosis of esophageal cancer is one important way. Visible luminal narrowing, and irregular filling defect, blocked by barium, and sometimes seen in the soft tissue lesions around the shadows. Located in the cardia cancer, sometimes the patient Trendelenburg. So that when the Dayton cardiac filling agent in order to see parts of the filling defect of tumor shadow. When an ulcer or fistula, you can see the video playing back and forth or barium meal spillovers.
b. Double Photo: The method is to use Rubber arrested sodium 3g, soluble in dilute sulfuric acid 20ml slurry within the lock, the patient dose in fluoroscopy, carved and then 50% dose of sodium bicarbonate in the esophagus and stomach fluid IOml that generate carbon dioxide mixed with the sodium agents, due to the normal esophagus is there gas storage expansion, while the Ministry of sclerosis lesions, and cancer of the size, shape, or without ulcer can clearly be seen. Esophageal mucosal folds can develop well.
c. abdominal compression method: patient supine, with the pressure to the left upper abdomen with a pressed until the patient is not conscious, head-down supine cervical esophagus can be used; supine position with the thoracic esophagus; abdominal esophagus with the standing position. Abdominal pressure, after serving the lock agent to show extreme expansion of the esophagus (the normal expansion of the cervical esophagus 2.5cm; thoracic segment of 5cm; abdominal segment up to 1.7cm), barium is slow, help fluoroscopy. This method is sometimes smaller lesions can be clearly seen.
Esophageal cancer check (3) esophageal endoscopy
Not only directly observed esophageal lesions, but also some tumor tissues directly removed for pathological examination. Early lesions usually shows partial esophageal mucosa rough, thickened, or peristaltic weakened. To see the new progress of the disease biology and after stenosis, or inexpensive rotten, ulcer, and easy bleeding.
Local esophagoscopy drawn by biopsy, if the cervical lymph nodes, can the removal of lymph nodes for biopsy.
B-scan can be used for esophageal lumen, the site of esophageal cancer, the relationship between the size and the surrounding tissue can be displayed nearby lymph nodes can also indicate whether the enlargement of early diagnosis.
Esophageal examination (6) CT examination
CT scan with high resolution cross sectional images, we can understand relations between the esophagus and surrounding tissue, tumor extent of foreign invasion, distant organ metastasis. TNM staging and will help develop treatment plans.
- inspection of osophegous