The diagnosis of esophageal cancer 1. Clinical manifestations
See, for example does not apply to the clinical swallowing food, food stagnation into a choking feeling, and sometimes progressive increase; progression of the disease see also spit Xianmo mucus, when the obstruction was significantly increased, chest, back of persistent pain, body slim, dehydration, dry stool, cachexia and so there should be suspected esophageal cancer. See specific clinical manifestations of the clinical manifestations described earlier.
Esophageal the diagnosis 2. CT scan
Because CT has a high resolution, cross-sectional images through the three-dimensional structure that can clearly show the relationship between the esophagus and adjacent organs. General esophageal wall thickness of 3mm, the thickness of not more than 5mm, esophageal wall thickening is often asymmetrical, with blurred boundaries around the organs, esophagus and surrounding structures visible fat layer, if the fat layer of high density or disappeared, suggesting that changes in foreign invasion of tumor . CT scan, the key observation esophageal wall thickness, outside tumor invasion and lymph node status of the Yuan metastasis. The posterior wall of the trachea, or trachea was normal flat-shaped or convex, if the tumor invasion, serrated posterior depression, is generally believed that following the normal lymph nodes in the lcm, and more than 1_1.5cm be prompted for the abnormal lymph nodes.
CT scan is prompted tumor size, degree of foreign invasion, lymph node metastasis and effective screening method. In general, I tumors confined to the esophagus lumen, esophageal wall thickness less than 5mm; IT with wall thickness of the tumor is larger than 5mm; because of thickening of esophageal wall at the same time the tumor extended to the adjacent organs, such as the trachea, bronchus, aorta or atrial; N of any one associated with distant metastasis. CT is an effective method of examination and surgical procedures is conducive to success rate previously estimated, radiation field design, and contribute to the diagnosis and staging of esophageal cancer levels.
The diagnosis of esophageal cancer 3. Esophageal cytology
Esophageal cytology is a simple, safe, patient less pain, the advantages of high accuracy, in the 20th century, the age of 60 has been used clinically, and as one of the important large-scale census.
Inspection methods: Esophageal cells generally use the dual-chamber collector plastics and rubber tubes, with a net air bags, dual-chamber head is about 65cm, diameter 0.25cm, 5cm a minute of each degree, there is a charge of double-lumen tube and two in charge, a pass into the cavity inflatable air bags for the other chamber through the openings to do a remote suction head. Silk bag to form a network on the jacket sleeve, examinations shall be conducted in the morning fasting, subjects first note that check, exhausted air to sac collapse, told his subjects to sit, mouth opening, the capsule into the Exhale back to swallow the tongue open, when the capsule into the pharynx when swallowing told his subjects to do a continuous movement, the capsule easily into the esophagus, when the tube down to 50cm, the inflatable 30, the capsule on the Pop Select portal to release a small amount of gas about 5:00 to take responsibility for portal rub off cells, when the inflated balloon through the esophagus should not be less than 15 hours in order to flatten the esophageal mucous membrane, rub the surface of cells for Esophageal, when the capsule to 15ml, it will be quickly exhausted the air out of bag, immediately filling the balloon a little gas, smear 4, even when smear, with particular attention to the air bag has a small amount of blood stained or worn parts do bleeding focus smear.
The diagnosis of esophageal cancer 4. Esophageal endoscopy
Esophageal endoscopy in the diagnosis of esophageal cancer is one important way. Since the late 20th century, 50, after application of fiber esophagoscopy, endoscopy with small diameter and soft, easy operation, the patient is small and widely used in clinical pain. Endoscopy has become an important means of diagnosis of esophageal cancer.
Endoscopic features: the shape of esophageal endoscopic manifestations of early esophageal cancer: mucosal congestion and swelling, lesions, slightly elevated, slightly higher than normal mucosa, normal mucosa is dark in color, with the boundaries of normal mucosa is not clear, and easy touch bleeding mirror tube , wall Shu Zhangliang good. mucosal erosion lesions, normal mucosa is dark in color and promote the normal mucosa shiny, with scattered small ulcer, white or gray surface with a yellow necrotic tissue, mirror tube touches prone, a good degree of control relaxation. lesions leukoplakia-like changes similar to mucous membrane, micro-uplift, darker spots around the mucous membrane, mucosal disruption, esophageal wall hard, hit hard the resistance. Advanced esophageal lesions more than 3cm in diameter in general, in the esophagus can be divided into mass in the microscope, reading War type, tumor infiltrative, ulcerative and infiltrating the surrounding narrow five types.
Esophageal endoscopy, there are certain indications. bad swallowing, chest pain, esophageal foreign body sensation, or food by slow symptoms. with the above symptoms, x ray imaging of esophageal suspicious or positive. patients have symptoms, positive esophageal dragnet inspection, x-ray examination suspected multiple segment lesions, should be further determine the location, scope. Assessment of patients with esophageal carcinoma therapy. esophageal dragnet census found positive patients, further confirmed by esophagoscopy.
- esophageal dragnet