Pleural effusion cytology 1. Exfoliated cells morphology
A certain amount of ascites collected by centrifugation, precipitation, smears were observed under the microscope after, according to judge the degree of cell differentiation. This check damage, method is simple, hook economy. However, a single smear method vulnerable to a variety of factors, low sensitivity, classification benefits difficult to diagnose a lot of problems.
In recent years, slicing techniques introduced in the field of cytology-positive detection rate of tumor cells significantly increased. Cells in tissue slice technology is actually in production applications in cytology, samples of cell morphology and cell biopsy similar to smear observed with complementary strengths to achieve results. Wax blocks can be repeated biopsy features, pathology workers to the Office will conduct special staining, immunohistochemistry and even molecular biology examination. But the cell collection and processing of biopsy specimens of complex production cycle is long, the cost is higher.
Detection of pleural effusion cytology 2.DNA
(1) DNA content determination of nuclear DNA is the material basis of cell proliferation, and ploidy characteristics of its content directly reflects the level of activity of the cells, aneuploid tumors had a higher DNA content, a higher than diploid tumors proliferative activity, has resulted in distant metastasis and recurrence. DNA content abnormalities can occur in tumor cell morphology was changed, so when the pathology can not be classified clinically suspicious when the DNA content of cells of great value as a diagnostic basis, DNA aneuploidy occur, can be used as early warning signals, should pay close attention . Huo Zhimin applications such as flow cytometry (FCM) detection of DNA content of ascites, the diagnosis of malignant ascites, the sensitivity and specificity were 91.7% and 92.3%. If the combined detection of CEA or CA19-9 may improve the diagnostic sensitivity.
FCM DNA content determination of diagnosis of malignant ascites has the following advantages:
specimen collection safer, less invasive;
samples is simple, no need to cut into pieces or separation, drawing immediately after the tag and the machine can be detected;
FCM quick access to large amounts of information, the test results accurately.
(2) Detection of allelic imbalance in the use of Chang and other digital single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of 20 cases of malignant ascites and 20 patients with benign ascites and found that 95% of DNA in the presence of malignant ascites allelic imbalance ( AI), and only one case of benign ascites DNA detected in the AI.
Pleural effusion cytology 3. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region staining
Nucleolus from the nucleus in some parts of the chromosome composition of areas of special production, the number of nucleolus into the area reflects the activity of nuclear and cell proliferation. Shi-Yun Tan, etc. found in benign and malignant ascites ascites cell nuclei stained argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NOR) count monitoring differences exist, Ag-NOR detection sensitivity of malignant ascites was 71.9%, specificity 48.4%; its sensitive was significantly higher than that of cytology (31.25%), suggesting that Ag-NOR in differentiating benign and malignant ascites has a certain value.
Pleural effusion cytology 4. Chromosome Analysis
Chromosome loss, distortion is closely related with the tumor. Chromosome in patients with malignant ascites mostly hyperdiploid, and the emergence of polyploid loss, distortion, and benign ascites are diploid and hypodiploid more common, suggesting that benign and malignant ascites ascites chromosome identification is important.