Detection of cancer micrometastases

By | April 16, 2012

Detection of tumor micrometastasis, select the appropriate detection of tumor markers is an important condition for micrometastasis, a presence that reflects leukocyte marker should have the following conditions:
tumor-specific, referring to the presence in tumor cells does not exist in normal cells;
tissue-specific, refers to the origin of a small tumor in the presence of 11 organizations do not exist in other tissues, especially in blood cells and lymphocytes do not exist;
The markers in the presence of the tumor should be universal, to ensure the detection sensitivity. In recent years, tumor markers in gastrointestinal done a lot of work on a variety of possible markers for the detection, a lot of evidence for the detection of gastrointestinal cancer micrometastases have provided favorable conditions, the following is reported in the literature in recent years more common markers.
Detection of tumor micrometastasis (a) of the cells keratinized protein
Keratinized cell protein derived from epithelial cells, keratin, such as CK19, CK20 intermediate filaments constitute the epidermal cells, and epithelial intermediate filaments of tumor cells were also Maida CK19, CK20, some non-epithelial expression of tumor can also be CKI9, but hematopoietic cells and blood cells without CK19, CK20 expression. Therefore, peripheral blood, lymph nodes and bone marrow towels are per CK19, CK20 expression, detection of circulating cancer cells can be used as an indicator, and CK-18, CK19, CK20 as a digestive tract cancer such as gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer micrometastases markers have been widely recognized.
(B) tumor-associated antigen
Funaki and other AFP-mRNA by PCR was used to detect micrometastasis of gastric cancer patients, Kijima and other lymph nodes in patients with esophageal cancer by detection of CEA-mRNA, to determine the success of lymph node micro-metastasis. Li Xia Li for applications such as RT-PCR detected 20 cases of CEA secreted colorectal cancer in patients with peripheral blood CEA-mRNA, found micrometastases in 11 cases, 5 patients had distant metastasis blood CEA-mRNA were positive. Certain tumor-associated antigen detection limits, for the part of the AFP, CEA non-secreting digestive tract cancer, may be given false negative results.
(C) ManlJ; naglobin gene
The gene belongs to the uterus globin gene family, was first discovered high expression in breast cancer. Aihara, etc. detected by RT-PCR in patients with different digestive malignant tumor gene expression in lymph node Mammaglobin found: 7 / 32 in gastric cancer, 3 / 9, colon cancer, 3 / 7 Histological examination of bile duct cancer without lymph node metastasis, Mammglobin Gene expression was positive, indicating that the gene can be used as testing a variety of digestive system cancer lymph node micrometastases of molecular markers. As Mammaglobin non-specific gene expression, therefore, used in gastrointestinal cancer micrometastases in a separate little value. In combination with other markers, may increase the positive rate of detection of micrometastasis.
Detection of tumor micrometastasis (d) telomerase activity
Tatsuma, etc. detected using telomerase repeat amplification were 17 cases of primary liver cancer telomerase activity in peripheral blood and found 14 cases positive for telomerase activity in peripheral blood. PCR-sentence by white persons O. 7 da 8) U, than in patients with chronic liver disease (0.42 0.36) U significantly increased, significantly higher than that of patients with 20 normal controls (0.39 0.14) U. In HCC patients, III of those with vascular invasion (2.10 0.62) U of E was significantly higher than in patients without vascular invasion (1.28 +0. 72) UoFrancisco for quantitative detection of liver and serum telomerase reverse the malignant lymphoma recorded enzyme mRNA (hTERT-mRNA), found that patients with malignant hTERT-mRNA was significantly higher than that of healthy controls. Since normal blood cells there is also a trace of telomerase activity may be detected in hTERT-mRNA weakly positive, therefore, semi-quantitative analysis has greater value.
(V) MAGE gene
Miyamoto and other study found 11 cases of liver cancer patients in 71 blood samples, MAGE-l expression in 9 cases (12.1%), MAGE-3 expression in 3 cases (4.8%), while all 31 normal volunteers, peripheral blood the MAGE-l, 3 gene was negative. 24 HCC tissues, MAGE-l, MAGE-3, AFP, CK-20 gene expression rate was 71%, 67%, 88%, 79% of all specimens at least one gene expression, and all 22 normal specimens of MAGE-l, 3 were not expressed, indicating that MAGE-l and the detection of MAGE-3 can be used as micro-metastasis of liver cancer is one series of markers.
Tumor micrometastasis detection, (f) MMP-7 (MMP -7)
Matrix metalloproteinase regulation of extracellular matrix homeostasis is the most important one of the major enzymes, MMP-7 is an ion-rich matrix degrading enzymes Zheng, mainly by the cancer cells and in cancer invasion and metastasis play a major role. MMP-7 in various types of malignant tissue increased, and its expression intensity correlated with tumor histological grade, cell differentiation 1r Note correlation. Yonemura, etc. Experiments show that RT-PCR, MMP-7 can be detected in 10 samples of each dilution within the tumor cells, and in the peripheral blood of healthy patients, peritoneal fluid, mesothelial cells and into the Hin-dimensional cells, no MMP-7mRNA (I expression. peritoneal infiltration of 46% sensitivity, combined with cytological examination can improve the Sword 62%.

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