What classification of cancer vaccines

By | January 4, 2012

Classification of a tumor vaccine, cell vaccine
(A) tumor cell vaccine
For gene-modified molecules, including cytokines, costimulatory molecules, tumor antigens and other tumor cells can enhance the immunogenicity of the antigen substances.
1, cytokines (Cytokine). These cytokines can effectively improve the local immune microenvironment to improve the capacity of antigen presentation, regulation of immune response to specific T lymphocytes of efficient, help protect the production of anti-tumor immunity.
2. Total stimulating molecule (Costimulatory Molecule) costimulatory molecules modified by the tumor can break the body's Yin tumor immune tolerance status, body expression of T lymphocytes or MHCll MHCI molecules in tumor cells can be an effective immune destruction.
3. Tumor antigen (Tumor Antigen) gene encoding the tumor antigen into tumor cells, can improve the immunogenicity of tumor vaccines. With a tumor antigen gene-modified DC and other antigen presenting cells but also a noteworthy tumor vaccine design.
4. Heterologous protein coding genes in some kind of shaped like the HLAChuman leucocyte antigen) gene, which encodes the genes of certain viral proteins, into tumor cells can also play a positive role to improve immunogenicity. In addition, the immune regulation of the complex and the characteristics of the network, so the number of functional genes by co-transfection of tumor cells can often produce synergy effects of the tumor vaccine to play better.
(B) dendritic cell vaccine
Dendritic cells Cdendritic cell, DC) is the body's T cells stimulate the most powerful thing, and its greatest feature is able to significantly stimulate the proliferation of naive T lymphocytes, is initiating the immune response of those who, in the anti-tumor immunity an important role.
1. To the tumor antigen or antigen peptide as a vaccine-induced DC
DC placed in the tumor antigen or tumor antigen peptide in solution, which produce antigen pulse DC, into the body after its capture, processing and presenting antigenic epitopes to induce antigen-specific CTLs, the role of immunosuppressive therapy. The method is simple, HB good cause in vivo anti-tumor immune response.
2. Genetically modified DC vaccine using gene transfer methods, the tumor antigen or the aforementioned modified tumor cells for factor CGM-CSF, NIF-, IL-12, IL-7 and other costimulatory molecules such as gene transferred bone marrow DC precursor cells, can produce a large number of specific induction of DC, in animal experiments can induce antigen-specific CTL responses, reduction of tumor metastasis and prolong survival
3. DC Preparation of a fusion of tumor cells tumor vaccine
DC and tumor cells in vitro hybrid fusion, hybrid cells obtained by the expression of DC surface molecules simultaneously and tumor associated antigen, into the swollen state of the body can effectively stimulate specific CTLs, the tumor immunotherapy.
Categories of tumor vaccines, molecular vaccines
(A) protein and peptide vaccines
Compared with traditional vaccines, peptide vaccines (peptide vaccine) has some unique advantages to the people of their soft spot. direct stimulation of antigen peptide, activation of the immune response to vaccines, but high specificity, and will not cause an autoimmune response or immune suppression; vaccine convenient synthesis of high purity; non-tumor tissue extract vaccine to prevent bacteria and viruses infection, safe and reliable. Therefore, multiple skin cancer vaccine therapeutic vaccine has become a hot research is a broad prospect for tumor immune therapy. However, the tumor antigen peptide-free vaccine has its limitations: Each HLA antigen peptide molecules are restricted, so there are matching problems, limit its widespread application; antigen peptide molecules more, leaves the majority of antigen peptide induced immune low immunogenicity, and easy to park by the kidneys of metabolic or protease; single antigen skin, there is tumor immune tolerance and immune evasion of the problem.
In recent years, application of tumor-associated antigen (tumor-associated antigen, T AA) or tumor-specific antigen (tumor-specific antigen, TSA) prepared by the rapid development of molecular vaccines, there are the following categories:
(1) embryonic antigen vaccine
(2) embryonic antigen vaccine
(3) heat shock protein – peptide complex cancer vaccines
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