Side effects of chemotherapy drugs

By | December 14, 2011

Current clinical use of anti-tumor chemotherapy drugs have different levels of side effects, some serious side effects is to limit the drug dosage or use the direct cause. They kill the tumor cells while also killing normal tissue cells, especially in the growth and development of strong anti-human blood, lymphoid tissue cells. And organization of these cells are the immune defense system, undermining the body's immune system, cancer may be developing rapidly, causing serious consequences. Side effects of chemotherapy toxicity and long-term sub-recent toxicity two. Recent toxicity is divided into local reactions (such as local tissue necrosis, thrombotic phlebitis) and systemic reactions (including gastrointestinal, hematopoietic system, immune system, skin and mucous membrane reactions, nervous system, liver damage, heart reaction, pulmonary toxicity, renal dysfunction, and other reactions, etc.). Mainly long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity of reproductive dysfunction, teratogenesis and so on. In addition, the side effects of chemotherapy drugs, sometimes complications can occur, a common infection, bleeding, perforation, uric acid crystallization.
Side effects of chemotherapy drugs are:
(1) a number of irritating a strong local reaction when the intravenous injection of chemotherapy drugs can cause serious local reactions. A. phlebitis: performance of the used intravenous site pain, redness, and sometimes can be seen along the vein vein thrombosis and skin pigmentation. Local tissue necrosis: When strong irritant when the drug can cause leakage into the subcutaneous local tissue chemical inflammation, swelling and pain or tissue necrosis and ulceration, prolonged unhealed.
(2) the majority of bone marrow suppression with chemotherapy drugs have varying degrees of bone marrow suppression, and bone marrow suppression and often dose-limiting toxicity of anticancer drugs. In the early bone marrow suppression, especially white blood cells can be expressed as neutropenia, severe thrombocytopenia, red blood cells, hemoglobin can reduce the role of different drugs on bone strength, speed and duration are different, so different degrees of response, while patients can have fatigue, weakness, decreased resistance, easy to infection, fever, bleeding and other symptoms.
(3) gastrointestinal toxicity of most chemotherapy drugs can cause gastrointestinal side effects, manifested as dry mouth, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, sometimes with oral mucositis or ulcers. Constipation, paralytic ileus, diarrhea, gastrointestinal bleeding and abdominal pain can also be seen.
(4) immunosuppressive chemotherapy drugs is generally more immunosuppressive drugs on immune function have different degrees of inhibition of the immune system in the eradication of residual tumor cells in vivo plays an important role, when the immune dysfunction, the tumor can not easily be controlled, but to speed up the process of recurrence or metastasis.
(5) renal toxicity of chemotherapy drugs can cause some kidney damage, mainly for acute renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis, degeneration, interstitial edema, tubular dilatation, severe renal failure occurs. Can occur in patients with low back pain, hematuria, edema, abnormal urine tests.
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