Tag Archive sciencedaily

Mechanics of cells’ long-range communication modeled by researchers

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By developing mathematical models of how the collagen matrix that connects cells in tissue stiffens, the researchers are providing insights into the pathology of fibrosis, cirrhosis of the liver and certain cancers. Tissue stiffness has long been know to be clinically relevant in these diseases, but the underlying changes that alter the mechanics of tissues are poorly understood…

Armed virus shows promise as treatment for pancreatic cancer

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The study, funded by the UK charity Pancreatic Cancer Research Fund, investigated whether the effectiveness of the Vaccinia oncolytic virus — a virus modified to selectively infect and kill cancer cells — as a treatment for pancreatic cancer, would be improved by arming it with a gene which modulates the body’s immune system. Despite laboratory studies which show that they can both kill cancer cells and provide immunity against cancer regrowth, oncolytic viruses have not performed well in clinical trials, as the immune system naturally attacks the virus before it can be effective…

Whole-genome sequencing can successfully identify cancer-related mutations

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This is the first study that has used whole-genome sequencing to evaluate a series of 258 cancer patients’ genomes to improve the ability to diagnose cancer-predisposing mutations. The study is published online in the journal EBioMedicine. …

Whole-genome sequencing can successfully identify cancer-related mutations — ScienceDaily

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This is the first study that has used whole-genome sequencing to evaluate a series of 258 cancer patients’ genomes to improve the ability to diagnose cancer-predisposing mutations. The study is published online in the journal EBioMedicine. “Whole-genome sequencing is a new genetic tool that can determine more of a person’s DNA sequence than ever before. Our results show that nearly 90 percent of clinically identified mutations were confidently detected and additional cancer gene mutations were discovered, which together with the decreasing costs associated with whole-genome sequencing means that this method will improve patient care, as well as lead to discovery of new cancer genes,” said Dr…

Lung Cancer: New Genetic Anomalies Discovered

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By analyzing the DNA and RNA of lung cancers, researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center found that patients whose tumors contained a large number of gene fusions had worse outcomes than patients with fewer gene fusions. Gene fusions are a type of genetic anomaly found in cancers that occurs when genes get rearranged and fuse together. In addition, the researchers identified several new genetic anomalies that occur in lung cancer, including in patients with a history of smoking. …

Bone loss drugs may help prevent endometrial cancer

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Endometrial cancer, which arises in the lining of the uterus, accounts for nearly 50 percent of gynecologic cancers diagnosed in the United States, and it is the fourth most common malignancy in women and the eighth most common cause of cancer death. …

Limit imaging scans for headache? Neurosurgeons raise concerns

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Neurosurgeon Dr. Ammar H. Hawasli and colleagues of Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, give their perspective on recent guidelines suggesting limited use of CT scans and other neuroimaging tests for patients with headache…

Suppressing a protein reduces cancer spread in mice

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“We think everybody has Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) in them because it plays a major role in our ability to fight off infections,” said Dr. Jack A…

Hispanic women less likely to survive endometrial uterine cancer

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A total of 69,764 women diagnosed with endometrial cancer between 2000 and 2010 were included in this study of public-use data from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. …

Scientists identify new, beneficial function of endogenous retroviruses in immune response

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But researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center and Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, found that endogenous retroviruses (ERV) also play a critical role in the body’s immune defense against common bacterial and viral pathogens. “Most scientists have become used to the view that retroviruses are generally harmful,” said Nobel Laureate Dr. …