Tumor diagnosis

By | October 12, 2011

    Cancer prevention and control principle is early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment.Common cancer diagnosis in the fight against cancer, "three early", early diagnosis is the basis for early detection of cancer, but also take the appropriate prerequisite for correct treatment. Therefore, early diagnosis in cancer prevention and treatment plays an important role. To achieve early diagnosis, the tumor must be active in research, advocacy cancer prevention knowledge, carry out anti-cancer screening. Through careful history taking and careful physical-order titles, most of the early detection of cancer. In order to diagnose cancer early, can be applied to a number of supplementary examination methods, such as X ray, ultrasound, radionuclide, endoscopy (such as the esophagus decorated with mirrors, colonoscopy, bronchoscopy, bladder microscope) examination, blood the biochemistry and immunology, and pathology so any order. Different inspection methods can provide different aspects of the anti-Xi Qiao price information. Pathological examination of which is the nature of early detection and identification of the tumor, the type of important ways, and finally diagnosed while the tumor based on scientific research, promote and improve the level of cancer prevention is an essential aspect of the important part. Common cancer diagnosis is as follows.
(A) cytology cytology is based on the tumor cell growth, cell adhesion is low, shedding characteristics of a liquid containing exfoliated cells as a smear or sub-secretion, or directly to the tumor surface scrape material for smear to check for malignant tumor cells. It has the advantage of method is simple, easy, safe, fast, the patient less pain. This method can be used for repeated examination, can be used to repeatedly check to compare changes before and after treatment.
China is already widely used method for cytology examination vaginal secretions or cervical scrape material for diagnosis of cervical cancer; used method for detecting esophageal cancer in esophageal netting and responsibilities of door carcinoma; with fresh sputum of lung cancer; with nasopharyngeal secretions prostate secretion smears of nasopharyngeal carcinoma , prostate cancer; chest, ascites precipitated smear, to check the chest or abdominal cavity of primary or metastatic cancer. To make a correct cytological diagnosis, must be familiar with all parts of the normal shedding and variation of cell morphology and morphological characteristics of tumor cells. Seen in the exfoliated cells suspicious cells, require further review; like to see the positive cancer cells, in view of exfoliated cells are scattered and difficult to observe the arrangement of the cell and tissue structure, characteristics, therefore, should be further biopsy, to the final diagnosis.
(B) biopsy
1. Excisional biopsy method some or all of the tumor by surgery or endoscopic removal of such down for pathological examination, which is now widely used method. In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy, cut the edge of the tumor specimen should pay attention to the Department, preferably with the adjacent normal tissue in order to observe the relationship between tumor and normal tissue; not to take the bottom of necrotic tissue in order to avoid misdiagnosis or ulcer; specimens removed, immediately fixed in 10% neutral solution of a wake, and then sent for pathological examination.
2. Frozen section biopsy is a fast method for diagnosis of surgical procedures needed to determine the extent of surgery based on those. Surgical cut the small piece of tissue can be fixed without using chlorine B: Anhui, or semiconductor refrigeration, or freezing microtome cryostat, the tissue rapidly frozen sections staining. Usually in the diagnosis can be made within 15 minutes. The disadvantage is sliced thicker than the quality of paraffin section, there are certain misdiagnosis rate.
3. Draw air needle biopsy method is based on drawing small piece of tissue into the tumor for biopsy or smears. Mainly applied to the breast, lymph nodes and deep soft tissue tumors. The method is simple, the patient less pain, but taken from a small organization, the diagnosis is difficult.
(C) other diagnostic methods
In recent years, with the development of science and technology, in addition to the above two methods commonly used in pathology, but also use the following methods of pathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
1. Histochemistry in tumor tissue by detecting some special ingredients to diagnose or identify organizational form similar to the tumor. Identification of the bone, such as PAS, Ewing tumor (positive) with bone marrow lymphoma (negative); alkaline phosphatase reaction identification of osteosarcoma (positive) and bone marrow lymphoma (negative); fat staining to determine liposarcoma; melanin staining identified melanoma; staining of collagen fibers can be identified, such as fibroids VG staining (red), smooth muscle tumor (yellow) and neurofibroma (orange).
2. Immunohistochemistry immunoperoxidase currently use more, radionuclides or fluorescent marker substances such as specific antibodies, shows some of the tumor in situ specific antigen, used in tumor diagnosis. Such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for colon cancer diagnosis; myoglobin for the diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma; chorionic gonadotropin (RCG) for the diagnosis of choriocarcinoma; lymphocyte monoclonal antibody for lymphoma and subtype diagnosis. Immunohistochemical staining of direct, indirect, enzyme anti-enzyme complex method (PAP method), avidin biotin complex method (ABC method), colloidal silver method and DNA in situ hybridization technology.
3. Fluorescence microscopy using fluorescent-labeled tumor-specific antibodies were observed under a fluorescence microscope, the diagnosis. In cytology, the result of DNA within the cancer cell nucleus and the cytoplasm more RNA than normal cells, using fluorescence staining, you can see under the fluorescent microscope, strong fluorescence, is conducive to diagnosis.
4. Electron microscopy as seen under an electron microscope, the tumor cells of the special ultrastructure and the resulting special ingredients to help diagnosis. For example, amelanotic melanoma tumor cell cytoplasm, typical of melanin can be seen before the bodies and the bodies of melanin; carcinoid cancer cell cytoplasm specific neuroendocrine granules; rhabdomyosarcoma cell cytoplasm transverse pattern of muscle fiber; desmosomes of squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated tension filaments can distinguish squamous cell carcinoma of the lymphoreticular cells in the tumor. In addition, there are common diagnostic methods of tumor immune electron microscopy can be used for diagnosis.

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