The diagnosis of breast cancer

By | November 29, 2011

Most patients with breast cancer is breast lumps, nipple discharge, breast skin changes, such as axillary lymph nodes and the first treatment of the chief complaint. After all of these diagnostic methods to diagnose patients, it is also should be noted that the performance of breast cancer similar to the identification of a variety of benign disease to avoid misdiagnosis. Once a breast lump, the need of breast fibroadenoma, giant fibroadenoma of identification; nipple discharge occurs when the need to be differentiated intraductal papilloma; the erosion of the nipple and nipple adenomas need differentiated.
1 breast cancer diagnosis. Breast lumps
(1) hyperplasia of mammary glands: Also called mammary lobular hyperplasia, breast disease, cystic hyperplasia. This is a class due to endocrine imbalance in estrogen and progesterone secretion rhythm disorders or the proportion of abnormal breast tissue due to incomplete or reversion, as a normal physiological phenomenon. The main symptoms of breast tenderness, swelling, pain, and menstrual cycle, menstruation before the obvious, to reduce or disappear after the cramps. On examination, one or both breasts diffuse thickening, granular, nodular or flake, and the surrounding tissue boundaries is unclear, a small number of patients may have serous nipple discharge. Breast X line usually presents patchy, density increases, compact, can have a smooth, thick calcifications. B-visible diffuse evenly within the gland type of large echo; sometimes increased thickening of the glands of varying sizes seen in multiple hypoechoic nodules in the cystic hyperplasia may be associated with the overall size of the time range The dark area.
(2) of breast fibroadenomas: is the most common benign breast tumor, the hormone levels, the ratio imbalance caused by a predilection for women aged 15 to 35, the peak age of 20 to 25 years old, postmenopausal women is rare. Single or multiple masses, multiple bilateral breast can also be found. Palpation can be found in tumor with clear boundary, texture hard, to activities. Touch of pain. Visible tumor tissue and surrounding tissues have distinct boundaries, can be enveloped, gray cut surface. Texture or mucus to be like. Microscopic epithelial and fibrous tissue hyperplasia, the formation of lobular structure. Fibroadenoma of the Lord may show hyperplasia, and atypical hyperplasia, or cancer, its fiber composition changes can occur sarcoma. For patients with primary atypical hyperplasia should be followed up regularly and building inspection for early detection of cancer signs for early diagnosis and early treatment.
(3) giant fibroadenoma: fibroadenoma general slow growth, but in pregnancy or breastfeeding due to hormones and other factors can be stimulated into rapid-growth giant fibroadenomas, some patients can no special inducement to develop into giant fiber adenoma. Of such patients in clinical practice can be found in abrupt sudden mass increase, local pain or discomfort. Palpable mass can be found in its hard texture, but the border clearly could be active. Local surgical resection should be taken. By pathological examination of tissue removed, you can make a correct diagnosis.
Breast cancer diagnosis 2. Intraductal papilloma of nipple discharge (intracystic papillomas, solitary papillomas) large duct from benign breast. More common in the maternal to more than 40 to 50 years old. Usually no symptoms, often due to contamination underwear nipple discharge was found. Serous discharge, mostly, a few with bloody. Tumors often single, smaller, often out of reach of mass clinical examination, a small number of patients could reach the vicinity of small nodules in the areola. Visible dilatation, luminal secretions. Tumor from the wall to lumen catheter protruding, often pedicle, papillary surface was gray. Pathological examination without cancer cells. Less chance of the malignant disease, the patients rarely relapse after resection. Solitary intraductal papilloma, from the lactiferous tubes, mostly solitary, in the subareolar area, with low probability of cancer. Multiple papilloma mainly from peripheral catheters. Multiple, often located around the breast area. Mass lesion in the breast tissue marginalized to the naked eye see the papillary tumor was bright red, crisp, chunky City who, a higher chance of malignancy, should cause alarm.
Breast cancer diagnosis 3. papillary adenoma nipple William Black (papillary adenoma or subareolar duct papillomatosis) occurred in 40 – 50 year-old woman, manifested as nipple erosion, ulcers and crusting, often misdiagnosed as papillary Paget disease can be identified by pathological examination.
Breast cancer diagnosis 4. Acute mastitis in postpartum lactating most of the first 3 to 4 weeks is more common in primipara. When onset of high fever, chills and other systemic symptoms, ipsilateral breast increases rapidly, the local hardening, skin redness, tenderness and throbbing pain, such as softening the short term, often that has been abscess formation, incision and drainage needs , ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes often swollen, white blood cell count often increased. Symptoms of abscess on the depth of its location, location, often shallow early swelling, uplift, and deep abscess local symptoms often not obvious, the pain and systemic symptoms. Abscesses can be single or multiple, simultaneously or successively formed, self-discharge ulceration, but also can invade the space, the loose breast tissue, the formation of mammary dizzy swollen. Acute mastitis and inflammatory breast cancer is sometimes difficult to identify at this time can be taken to puncture cytology, if still negative but clinical suspicion when the skin biopsy can be further rows, while the diagnosis may be antibiotic treatment.
In addition to detailed understanding of the differential diagnosis of patients with history, clinical signs and double-check X-ray and ultrasound examination, the histopathological examination is necessary. In determining whether the cancer, the pathological diagnosis of the most direct evidence. Also need to identify other possible breast tuberculosis, lymphoma, breast, but are very rare.

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