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Stem cell disease model clarifies bone cancer trigger

The study results, published in the journal Cell, revolve around iPSCs, which since their 2006 discovery have enabled researchers to coax mature (fully differentiated) bodily cells (e.g. skin cells) to become like embryonic stem cells. Such cells are pluripotent, able to become many cell types as they multiply and differentiate to form tissues…

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Common chemotherapeutic agent reduces resistance to virus therapy in brain tumor patients

Preclinical studies of oncolytic virus therapy in malignant glioma are promising; however, a potential problem with this approach is that the body’s own immune system can recognize the virus and clear the infection, resulting in reduced therapeutic effects. For this study, researchers used a mouse model with an intact immune system to mimic what would occur in humans to determine how the immune system clears the oncolytic virus. They found that the area surrounding malignant gliomas has a high number of immune cells called microglial cells and macrophages…

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Synthetic lethality offers new approach to kill tumor cells, explains researcher — ScienceDaily

“Genetic alterations in cancer in humans may involve gene inactivation, amplification or inactivation,” said List.These changes are not present in nonmalignant cells. Common chemotherapeutic agents aggressively kill tumor cells irrespective of genetic alterations.They also have a negative impact on normal cells and can cause significant side effects. …

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Exercise boosts tumor-fighting ability of chemotherapy, team finds

Their work, performed in a mouse model of melanoma, found that combining exercise with chemotherapy shrunk tumors more than chemotherapy alone. Joseph Libonati, an associate professor in the School of Nursing and director of the Laboratory of Innovative and Translational Nursing Research, was the senior author on the study, which appears in the American Journal of Physiology. His collaborators included Penn Nursing’s Geetha Muthukumaran, Dennis Ding and Akinyemi Bajulaiye plus Kathleen Sturgeon, Keri Schadler, Nicholas J. …

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New drug formulations to boost fight against respiratory illnesses, antibiotic-resistant superbugs

A team of five researchers and clinicians in Singapore led by Dr Desmond Heng, ICES, has developed a new combination of drugs to effectively combat bacteria in the lungs which lead to common respiratory system infections, or bacteria-linked pulmonary diseases such as pneumonia, bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis. An acute upper respiratory tract infection, which includes the common flu, was reported to be among the top four conditions diagnosed at polyclinics for eight consecutive years, from 2006 to 2013. Pneumonia on the other hand, was the second leading cause of death in 2012, contributing to 16.8 per cent of the total number of deaths from illnesses behind cancer…

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New method for non-invasive prostate cancer screening — ScienceDaily

Now a team of researchers led by Shaoxin Li at Guangdong Medical College in China has demonstrated the potential of a new, non-invasive method to screen for prostate cancer, a common type of cancer in men worldwide. They describe their laboratory success testing an existing spectroscopy technique called surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with a new, sophisticated analysis technique called support vector machine (SVM)…

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Drug used for DNA repair defects could treat leukemia, other cancers more effectively

The new study suggests that treatment with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, together with standard chemotherapy drugs, could be more effective in combating leukemia. In the same study, researchers found that the inactivation of RUNX genes causes DNA repair defects and promotes the development of leukemia and other cancers…

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