Urinary bladder cancer is the most common form of cancer, accounting for 3% of systemic cancer, age of onset is most common in 50-70 years, male to female ratio of about 4:10 cause of bladder cancer has not yet entirely clear. In recent years, study finds, B tea rubber, plastic and magenta biphenyl and other chemical substances is an important carcinogen. Engaged in dye, rubber, gas, cable, plastic and leather occupational bladder cancer prone persons. In addition, smoking, parasitic or viral infections, abnormal metabolism of tryptophan in vivo, and chronic bladder changes, also related to the occurrence of bladder cancer.
Basic features and diagnosis of bladder cancer are as follows:
Bladder cancer in bladder cancer accounts for more than 86% of the vast majority of which comes from the transitional cell, undifferentiated carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are rare. In addition to transitional cell carcinoma, the characteristics and diagnosis of bladder cancer in the following features:
(1) are highly malignant bladder cancer, invasion and metastasis as early as the characteristics of deep and difficult to cure. (2) adenocarcinoma is rare, often occur in urachal remnants of place. (3), rhabdomyosarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma is rare, common in male children and young people, showed extensive invasion, early metastasis, and often fatal disease department. (4) The onset of malignant lymphoma, neurofibroma, hemangioma, tumors are addicted to rare contact. Which can often addicted Ming-cell tumor associated with hypertension.
Most bladder cancer painless gross hematuria or microscopic hematuria as the first symptoms. The former can be seen with the naked eye in urine was bright red, tan or flesh wash water; which the naked eye can not see, can be found under the microscope only in red blood cells in urine (urine is not normal red blood cells). Bladder cancer more performance for intermittent, full hematuria, sometimes accompanied by blood clots. However, the amount of bleeding and duration of hematuria and malignant tumors, tumor size, scope and number of a certain relationship. But sometimes gross hematuria occurs when the tumor has been large or advanced stage; sometimes very small tumors may also appear a lot of hematuria. The performance of the hematuria was intermittent hematuria stopped when patients easily overlooked, mistaken for timely disease disappeared without doing further checks. When patients showed only microscopic hematuria, because not accompanied by other symptoms, without being discovered until the attention only when gross hematuria. If the bladder cancer accompanied by infection, or lesions in the bladder moonlight triangle, then the earlier onset of urinary symptoms can be stimulated. In addition, frequent urination, urgency and other symptoms of bladder irritation, may indicate bladder carcinoma in situ. Therefore, based on any lack of infection in patients with bladder irritation, should take positive measures to ensure the comprehensive examination to diagnose early because some patients had larger tumors, or in the bladder neck, or blood clot formation, can cause urinary tract obstruction, dysuria or urethral full stay. Also occur in patients with advanced bladder cancer loss of appetite, nausea, malaise, fever, abdominal and perineal pain, Mong portal fall, and some patients may appear lower back pain. Patients with multiple positive signs in the early, late, there may be weight loss, anemia, male patients female patients by digital rectal examination can be reached through the vagina diagnosis of bladder tumor, or cancer metastasis by the Department of Vascular compression caused by lower extremity edema of Confucianism. Individual patients in the lower abdomen hard mass palpable mass and tenderness. When the tumor invasion to the urethra, prostate and rectum can occur when the appropriate symptoms. When the tumor is located in the side of the ureteral orifices, causing infiltration of the ureteral orifice, the expansion can cause the side of the ureter, hydronephrosis.
Features and diagnosis of bladder cancer bladder cancer diagnosis is not difficult any more than 40 years of age of unknown causes painless gross hematuria, should think of the possibility of urinary tract tumors, especially in the most common bladder cancer, hematuria is the urinary Department of the symptoms common to many diseases, so further tests must be done in principle, be used per port painful, simple and non-invasive inspection and examination by a traumatic as possible before achieved in the treatment of pathological diagnosis, diagnosis can be used when the following checks: (1) urinalysis. (2) urinary bladder cytology down. (3) B-ultrasound. (4) KUB renal pelvis and bladder and intravenous contrast. (5) CT examination. "(6), cystoscopy and tumor biopsy. (7) immune enzyme assay. (8), urine flow cytometry.
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